Se Maometto non va alla montagna, la montagna va a Maometto! Before the region was conquered by Arab Muslims in the 7th century AD, numerous Kurdish tribes and small Kurdish empires flourished.Islamic rule over the Kurdish homeland by the Ottoman Empire came to end after WWI, but the Iraqi Kurds, who had lived between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, were segmented into different countries a… În Kurdistan investesc guvernul irakian, guvernul turc și alți 40 de investitori străini. This was not received well in Baghdad, and as a result, Qasim began to prepare for a military offensive against the north to return government control of the region. The region was conquered by Arab Muslims in the mid 7th century AD as the invading forces conquered the Sassanian Empire, while Assyria was dissolved as a geo-political entity (although Assyrians remain in the area to this day), and the area made part of the Muslim Arab Rashidun, Umayyad, and later the Abbasid Caliphates, before becoming part of various Iranian, Turkic, and Mongol emirates. Dispacci dal fronte iracheno book. There is a seasonal lag in some places in summer, with temperatures peaking around August and September. 6. Maeci. [75] On March 23, Barzani officially declared that Iraqi Kurdistan will hold the referendum some time "before October" of that year. Kurdish military forces, known as Peshmerga, played an important role in the overthrow of the Iraqi government;[64] however, Kurds have been reluctant to send troops into Baghdad since then, preferring not to be dragged into the sectarian struggle that so dominates much of Iraq.[65]. Following the unexpected death of Arif, whereupon he was replaced by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif, the Iraqi government launched a last-ditch effort to defeat the Kurds. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from the various ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society, but primarily Iranian. See the articles on Turkey, Western Iran and Syria for information regarding the other regions of Kurdistan. Things began to change after the 1991 uprising against Saddam Hussein at the end of the Persian Gulf War. Al-Sheikhly, O.F. During World War II, the power vacuum in Iraq was exploited by the Kurdish tribes and under the leadership of Mustafa Barzani a rebellion broke out in the north, effectively gaining control of Kurdish areas until 1945, when Iraqis could once again subdue the Kurds with British support. The Status of the Iraq Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli Hayman 1956 and Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra Linnaeus 1758 in Iraq. Arab settlement programs reached their peak during the late 1970s, in line with depopulation efforts of the Ba'athist regime. During this period, the Kurds were subjected to a double embargo: one imposed by the United Nations on Iraq and one imposed by Saddam Hussein on their region. The Treaty of Sèvres (which did not enter into force), and the Treaty of Lausanne which superseded it, led to the advent of modern Western Asia and the modern Republic of Turkey. Il Kurdistan iracheno rappresenta una delle zone più problematiche di tutta l’area, poiché il popolo curdo si è trovato sparso nei vari paesi limitrofi a seguito della divisione del Medio Oriente operata da Francia e Gran … Ajalugu. Marc. The second and more extensive and widespread wave began from March 29, 1987 until April 23, 1989, when the Iraqi army under the command of Saddam Hussein & Ali Hassan al-Majid carried out a genocidal campaign against the Kurds, characterized by the following human rights violations: The widespread use of chemical weapons, the wholesale destruction of some 2,000 villages, and slaughter of around 50,000 rural Kurds, by the most conservative estimates. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}36°55′N 44°2′E / 36.917°N 44.033°E / 36.917; 44.033. Barzani went to Iran with many of his supporters. On the other hand, Kurds remained dependent on the Iranian military support and could do little to strengthen their forces. Qasim ignored the Kurdish demands and continued his planning for war. In response to the attack, Qasim lashed out and ordered the Iraqi Air Force to indiscriminately bomb Kurdish villages, which ultimately served to rally the entire Kurdish population to Barzani's standard. Praegu jääb Türgi, Iraagi, Iraani ja Süüria aladele. This stalemate irritated powerful factions within the military and is said to be one of the main reasons behind the Ba'athist coup against Qasim in February 1963. كوردستان – Kurdistan), pełna nazwa: Region Kurdystanu (arab. Media in category "Maps of Iraqi Kurdistan" The following 55 files are in this category, out of 55 total. Moreover, the Soviet Union pressured the Iraqis to come to terms with Barzani. Annual rainfall differs across Iraqi Kurdistan, with some places seeing rainfall as low as 500 millimetres (20 in) in Erbil to as high as 900 millimetres (35 in) in places like Amadiya. [66], In September 2012, the Iraqi government ordered the KRG to transfer its powers over the Peshmerga to the central government. Processo di democratizzazione del Rojava siriano e del Kurdistan iracheno. I curdi e la loro posizione nel diritto internazionale. Kurdistan on ajalooline kurdide asuala Lääne-Aasias. Regional autonomy had originally been established in 1970 with the creation of the Kurdish Autonomous Region following the agreement of an Autonomy Accord between the government of Iraq and leaders of the Iraqi Kurdish community. [8][9] One of the ancient names of Kurdistan is Corduene.[10][11]. N. Maxoudian, "Early Armenia as an Empire: The Career of Tigranes III, 95–55 BC", Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra, by A.M.T Moore, G.C. Il Kurdistan iracheno. [60] This led to internecine and intra-Kurdish conflict and warfare between 1994 and 1996. As part of the deal arranged between Qasim and Barzani, Qasim had promised to give the Kurds regional autonomy in return for Barzani's support for his policies. Kurdistan (/ ˌ k ɜːr d ɪ ˈ s t æ n, ˈ s t ɑː n /; Kurdish: Kurdistan ,کوردستان ‎ [ˌkʊɾdɪˈstɑːn] (); lit. "[69] After previously opposing the independence for Iraqi Kurdistan, Turkey later gave signs that it could recognize an independent Kurdish state. United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 gave birth to a safe haven following international concern for the safety of Kurdish refugees. However, defiant to the British, in 1922 Shaikh Mahmoud declared a Kurdish Kingdom with himself as king. Among their neighbours, the Kurdish culture is closest to Persian culture. It was not until September 10, when an Iraqi army column was ambushed by a group of Kurds, that the Kurdish revolt truly began. In the Shade of a Tree: Religious Patterns in the Kurdistan Region from Late Antiquity to Modern Times Gianfilippo Terribili - Sapienza University of Rome Camilla Insom - L’Orientale University of Naples MAIKI (Missione Archeologica Italiana in Kurdistan Iracheno – DiSA Sapienza) Consignment Based Conformity Assessment (CBCA) service for exports to Kurdistan. [51], The Ba'athist government of Iraq forcibly displaced and culturally Arabized minorities (Kurds, Yezidis, Assyrians, Shabaks, Armenians, Turkmen, Mandeans), in line with settler colonialist policies, from the 1960s to the early 2000s, in order to shift the demographics of North Iraq towards Arab domination. The taxation of this trade at the crossing point between Saddam's territory and Kurdish controlled territory and then into Turkey, along with associated service revenue, meant that whoever controlled Dohuk and Zakho had the potential to earn several million dollars a week. Certificate of Conformity for Exports to the Kurdistan Region. [72] In November, Ed Royce, Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives, introduced legislation to arm the Kurds directly, rather than continue working through the local governments. 4-set-2017 - Esplora la bacheca "Erbil Citadel" di su Pinterest. The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Palestine (which then consisted of two autonomous regions: Mandatory Palestine and Transjordan) and what was to become Iraq. The Kurdish populations are recognized in both Iraq and Iran, as the Kurds in northern Iraq have successfully established their own autonomous government (the Kurdistan Regional Government), and the Kurds in Iran primarily inhabit the Iranian province of Kordestan. Since the downfall of the regime of Saddam Hussein, the relations between the KRG and Turkey have been in flux. Please review before submitting if you have questions. di Andrea Beccaro. Mosul is 49 miles from Erbil, so the actual climate in Erbil can vary a bit. After 1996, 13% of the Iraqi oil sales were allocated for Iraqi Kurdistan and this led to relative prosperity in the region. Due to the summers being less extreme, thousands of tourists from the hotter parts of Iraq come to visit the region in that season.[17]. Vegetation in the region includes, Abies cilicica, Quercus calliprinos, Quercus brantii, Quercus infectoria, Quercus ithaburensis, Quercus macranthera, Cupressus sempervirens, Platanus orientalis, Pinus brutia, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus oxycedrus, Salix alba, Olea europaea, Ficus carica, Populus euphratica, Populus nigra, Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus azarolus, cherry plum, rose hips, pistachio trees, pear and Sorbus graeca. [73], In August 2014, the US began a campaign of airstrikes in Iraq, in part to protect Kurdish areas such as Erbil from the militants. [78] This triggered a military operation in which the Iraqi government retook control of Kirkuk and surrounding areas,[79] and forced the KRG to annul the referendum.[80]. (2013). Iraq was widely condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures, including the use of chemical weapons against the Kurds,[55] which resulted in thousands of deaths. 1قەزای سلێمانی.jpg 4,135 × 5,849; 1.01 MB In 1929, the Barzani demanded the formation of a Kurdish province in northern Iraq. Duhok has the hottest summers in the region, with highs averaging around 42 °C (108 °F). L'origine della questione curda e l'applicabilità del diritto all'autodeterminazione. Click each marker to explore the region, view pictures, and learn more. [68], As of 2014, Iraqi Kurdistan is in dispute with the Federal Iraqi government on the issues of territorial control, export of oil and budget distribution and is functioning largely outside Baghdad's control. Instead, it is rolling hills and plains vegetated by sclerophyll scrubland. Meanwhile, in June 1961, the KDP issued a detailed ultimatum to Qasim outlining Kurdish grievances and demanded rectification. This article is about the Kurdish region of Iraq. Dopo la sconfitta dell'esercito iracheno nella prima guerra del Golfo, nel marzo 1991, vi furono rivolte contro il regime di Saddam Hussein in tutto l'Iraq, in particolare nelle regioni del sud, a maggioranza sciita, e nelle regioni del nord, abitate dai … In November 1963, after considerable infighting amongst the civilian and military wings of the Ba'athists, they were ousted by Abdul Salam Arif in a coup. [76] On April 2, 2017, the two governing parties released a joint statement announcing they would form a joint committee to prepare for a referendum to be held on 25 September. Iraqi Kurdistan sees snowfall occasionally in the winter, and frost is common. Ammianus Marcellinus, another fourth-century writer. [59] Relations between the PUK and the KDP started to become dangerously strained from September 1993 after rounds of amalgamations occurred between parties. The first wave of the plan was carried out in 1982 when 8,000 Barzanis were arrested and their remains were returned to Kurdistan in 2008. "region of Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural territory in Western Asia wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and the Kurdish culture, languages, and national identity have historically been based. It is one of the four parts of Kurdistan, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northern Syria (Western Kurdistan), and northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan). [67] CNN reported that two people were killed (one of them an Iraqi soldier) and ten wounded in clashes at the Tuz Khurmato town. Iraq informed Tehran that it was willing to satisfy other Iranian demands in return for an end to its aid to the Kurds. In 1973, the US made a secret agreement with the Shah of Iran to begin covertly funding Kurdish rebels against Baghdad through the Central Intelligence Agency and in collaboration with the Mossad, both of which would be active in the country through the launch of the Iraqi invasion and into the present. Others surrendered en masse and the rebellion ended after a few days. Il Kurdistan iracheno, ufficialmente Regione del Kurdistan, (in curdo: Herêma Kurdistanê), è un'entità federale autonoma nella parte settentrionale dell'Iraq che comprende i quattro governatorati a maggioranza curda di Dahuk (Dihok), Erbil (Hewlêr), Halabja (Helebce) e Sulaymaniyya (Silêmanî). Address of Kurdistan iracheno - Erbil, submit your review or ask any question, search nearby places on map. [14], Bird species include, the see-see partridge, Menetries's warbler, western jackdaw, Red-billed chough, hooded crow, European nightjar, rufous-tailed scrub robin, masked shrike and the pale rockfinch. Among other cities in the climate table below, Soran, Shaqlawa and Halabja also experience lows which average below 0 °C (32 °F) in winter. 77 likes. Large cities were built by the Assyrians, including Ashur, Nineveh, Guzana, Arrapkha, Imgur-Enlil (Balawat), Shubat-Enlil and Kalhu (Calah / Nimrud). Later he moved to the Soviet Union after the collapse of the Republic of Mahabad in 1946.[42][43]. 15). The large Kurdish town of Qala Dizeh (population 70,000) was completely destroyed by the Iraqi army. At this point, Barzani ordered his forces to occupy and expel government officials from all Kurdish territory. Kurdish parties joined forces against the Iraqi government during the war in Spring 2003. Thank you for joining The Kurdish Project community! One of the major Assyrian cities in the area, Erbil (Arba-Ilu), was noted for its distinctive cult of Ishtar,[28] and the city was called "the Lady of Ishtar" by its Assyrian inhabitants. 6. [62] Direct United States mediation led the two parties to a formal ceasefire in what was termed the Washington Agreement in September 1998. The U.S. and the Coalition established a No Fly Zone over a large part of northern Iraq (see Operation Provide Comfort),[57] however, it left out Sulaymaniyah, Kirkuk and other important Kurdish populated regions. [71], In September, Kurdish leaders decided to postpone the referendum so as to focus on the fight against ISIL. It is the first day of the month of Xakelêwe in Kurdish calendar and the first day of spring. A People Without A Home. The incursion, which lasted eight days, could have drawn the armed forces of Kurdistan into a broader regional war. The Tigris river enters Iraqi Kurdistan from Turkish Kurdistan. [46] Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin in the same period.[47]. As a result, the Iraqi government extended its control over the northern region after 15 years and in order to secure its influence, started an Arabization program by moving Arabs to the vicinity of oil fields in northern Iraq, particularly those around Kirkuk, and other regions, which were populated by Kurds. During World War I, the British and French divided Western Asia in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Viaggio nel Kurdistan iracheno. About ISPI - Work with us - Experts - Contact - For Media- Privacy. In the following years, Baghdad government overcame its internal divisions and concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in April 1972 and ended its isolation within the Arab world. The largest lake in the region is Lake Dukan. In his excursus on the Sasanian Empire, he describes Assyria in such a way that there is no mistaking he is talking about lower Mesopotamia (Amm. Conflicte și controverse. [63], Iraqi Kurds played an important role in the Iraq War. The Ba'ath government started a campaign to end the Kurdish insurrection, which stalled in 1969. [51], The campaigns took place during the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, being largely motivated by the Kurdish–Arab ethnic and political conflict. The region was inhabited by the northern branch of the Gutian/Hurrians around 2400 BC. Winning team of football tournament, May 2017, Domiz 2 camp, Duhok, Kurdistan Region - Iraq. Most areas in the region fall within the Mediterranean climate zone (Csa), with areas to the southwest being semi-arid (BSh). There are many rivers running through the region, which is distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, and picturesque nature. [44][45] Recognizing the futility of continuing this campaign, Rahamn Arif announced a 12-point peace program in June 1966, which was not implemented due to the overthrow of Rahman Arif in a 1968 coup by the Baath Party. [50] The repressive measures carried out by the government against the Kurds after the Algiers agreement led to renewed clashes between the Iraqi Army and Kurdish guerrillas in 1977. During the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive, Iraqi Kurdistan seized the city of Kirkuk and the surrounding area, as well as most of the disputed territories in Northern Iraq. Between 612 and 605 BC, the Assyrian empire fell and it passed to the neo-Babylonians and later became part of the Athura Satrap within the Achaemenian Empire from 539 to 332 BC, where it was known as Athura, the Achaemenid name for Assyria. L'autonomia del Kurdistan iracheno. Contribute your suggestions in the form below! It recognized both the Kurdistan Region and all laws passed by the KRG since 1992. In prehistoric times, the region was home to a Neanderthal culture such as has been found at the Shanidar Cave. Turkish Kurdistan, 1920 (as proposed by the Treaty of Sevres) Kurdistan, 1945 (Conference of San Francisco) Kurdistan, 1945 (Conference of San Francisco) Kurdistan, 1945 (Conference of San Francisco) Division of Kurdistan after the Civil War, 2003; Kurdistan Regional Government Map, 2005; Kurdish Regions of Iraq: Political Status in 2010 The mountainous nature of Iraqi Kurdistan, the difference of temperatures in its various parts, and its wealth of waters make it a land of agriculture and tourism. [77], The 2017 Kurdistan Region independence referendum took place on September 25, with 92.73% voting in favor of independence. Meanwhile, during 1959–1960, Barzani became the head of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), which was granted legal status in 1960. [49] The agreement left the Kurds helpless and Tehran cut supplies to the Kurdish movement. With mediation by Algerian President Houari Boumediene, Iran and Iraq reached a comprehensive settlement in March 1975 known as the Algiers Pact. Dal campo profughi di Erbil alla prima linea del fronte a pochi kilometri dal Califfato, i nostri reporter raccontano l'avanzata dell'Isis nel Kurdistan… Reportage dal Kurdistan iracheno on Vimeo Join For example, they celebrate Newroz as the new year day, which is celebrated on March 21. La regione confina con l'Iran a Est, con la Turchia a Nord, con la Siria a Ovest. The modern Kurdistan map includes parts of eastern Turkey, northern Syria, northern Iraq and northwestern Iran. Under pressure from the Iraqi government and the British, the most influential leader of the clan, Mustafa Barzani was forced into exile in Iran in 1945. Analisi qualitativa e comparata della democrazia in Rojava e nel Kurdistan iracheno. The map was built with Google Maps and highlights cities that have historically been inhabited by large Kurdish populations.

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