Download the Supermarine Spitfire Mk IX, XI, XVI Pilot's Manual (29 Pages, 1172 kb Adobe Acrobat ".pdf" file ) It's difficult to discuss the birth of Supermarine Spitfire IX without including her arch nemesis, the German Focke Wulf FW-190. You did not have such positive control over them. Supermarine Spitfire IX: Fourth major production fighter variant (Supermarine Type 361), combining Mk VC airframe with two-stage two-speed Merlin 60 series engine but lacking other improvements designed for (later) Supermarine Spitfire VIII. Another PR Mk 19, PS853, which is now owned by Rolls-Royce, was on gate-guard duties at Binbrook, having been retired from the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (BBMF) one year before. The operational history of the Spitfire with the RAF began with the first Mk Is K9789, which entered service with 19 Squadron at RAF Duxford on 4 August 1938. [nb 9] The radiators were housed in a new radiator-duct designed by Fredrick Meredith of the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) at Farnborough, Hampshire. [68] Both of these airframes have a significant history in that they were acquired in the Second World War and used in the first war drives, which preceded the US entry into the conflict. Further improvements were introduced throughout the Merlin series, with Bendix-manufactured pressure carburettors, designed to allow fuel to flow during all flight attitudes, introduced in 1942. When the Mk VIII appeared later in 1942, its performance was very similar to that of the Mk IX. Morgan and Shacklady 2000, pp. "The Birth of a Thoroughbred.". At the time the wing was designed, this D-shaped leading edge was intended to house steam condensers for the evaporative cooling system intended for the PV-XII. A fibreglass replica in the colours of a Polish squadron leader based at the station during the Second World War is on display at, A replica Spitfire is on display on the Thornaby Road roundabout near the school named after Sir Douglas Bader who flew a Spitfire in the Second World War. Much loved by its pilots, the Spitfire served in several roles, including interceptor, photo-reconnaissance, fighter-bomber, and trainer, and it continued to serve in these roles until the 1950s. [29] Although outside contractors were supposed to be involved in manufacturing many important Spitfire components, especially the wings, Vickers-Armstrong (the parent company) was reluctant to see the Spitfire being manufactured by outside concerns, and was slow to release the necessary blueprints and subcomponents. [119][120][121] Over the Northern Territory of Australia, Royal Australian Air Force and RAF Spitfires assigned to No. ", Henshaw, Alex. [123] Spitfire MKVIIIs took part in the last battle of World War II involving the Western allies in Burma, in the ground attack role, helping defeat a Japanese break-out attempt. [58], The skins of the fuselage, wings, and tailplane were secured by dome-headed rivets, and in critical areas such as the wing forward of the main spar where an uninterrupted airflow was required, with flush rivets. [57], A combination of 14 longitudinal stringers and four main longerons attached to the frames helped form a light, but rigid structure to which sheets of alclad stressed skinning were attached. A scale replica is on display at the Returned Services League (RSL) Club in Bendigo, Victoria. [7] Of the seven designs tendered to F7/30, the Gloster Gladiator biplane was accepted for service. The second cockpit of this aircraft has been lowered and is now below the front cockpit. He eventually regained control somewhere below 3,000 ft (910 m) and landed safely with no discernible damage to his aircraft. [19] After the fourth flight, a new engine was fitted, and Summers left the test flying to his assistants, Jeffrey Quill and George Pickering. [100], Even if the eight Brownings worked perfectly, pilots soon discovered that they were not sufficient to destroy larger aircraft. The first four frames supported the glycol header tank and engine cowlings. There are 35 pictures in all, divided by subject into four sections for easier browsing. Work began with great urgency on an interim Spitfire. Keith held various appointments with the RAF dealing with designing, development and technical policy of armament equipment. It was unveiled to the public in April 1993 by Quill at the RAF Museum, Hendon, and is currently on loan to the Tangmere Military Aviation Museum. Greenwood Military Aviation Museum is also home to a replica non-flying Spitfire. Here is the Supermarine Spitfire Mk.IX RAF Camouflage Color Profile and Paint Guide. ", Jane, Fred T. "The Supermarine Spitfire. Although this is often perceived as Summers implying the Spitfire was flawless, this is not the case. In fact the Mk.IX was simply a Mk.V Spitfire with a newer engine. But I have to admit that the later marks, although they were faster than the earlier ones, were also much heavier and so did not handle so well. [136] Although the Spitfire continued to improve in speed and armament, its limited fuel capacity restricted range and endurance: it remained "short-legged" throughout its life except in the dedicated photo-reconnaissance role, when its guns were replaced by extra fuel tanks. The first response to this threat was the Mk VIII, but this aircraft involved a significant redesign of the basic Spitfire, and would take time to produce in the numbers required. ", History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Koga's Zero: The Fighter That Changed World War II, The Spitfire Site – resource library about the Supermarine Spitfire, Spitfire/Seafire Serial Numbers, production contracts and aircraft histories, K5054 – Supermarine Type 300 prototype Spitfire & production aircraft history, Supermarine Spitfire – History of a legend (RAF Museum), The Supermarine Spitfire in Indian Air Force Service, Spitfire Pilots, articles about Spitfires and its pilots, RAF Museum Spitfire Mk VB walk-around photos, Examples of Photographic Reconnaissance Spitfires, Pacific Spitfires – The Supermarine Spitfire in RAAF Service, A photograph of the 1939 "Speed Spitfire" in, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Supermarine_Spitfire&oldid=995400266, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles needing additional references from April 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Morgan and Shacklady 2000, pp. Stuka dive bomber. Frame five, to which the engine bearers were secured, supported the weight of the engine and its accessories. The rear fuselage started at the 11th frame, to which the pilot's seat and (later) armour plating were attached, and ended at the 19th, which was mounted at a slight forward angle just forward of the fin. Supermarine Spitfire oli Yhdistyneen kuningaskunnan ja monien muiden liittoutuneiden ilmavoimien käyttämä toisen maailmansodan aikainen yksimoottorinen ja yksipaikkainen hävittäjä. It flew operationally with No. Between 1940 and 1946, Henshaw flew a total of 2,360 Spitfires and Seafires, more than 10% of total production.[46][47]. In early marks of the Spitfire (Mk I to Mk VI), the single flap was operated manually using a lever to the left of the pilot's seat. The L.F. was the low-altitude version of the Mk.IX, configured with a Merlin 66 engine and clipped elliptical wings. The Seafire was a carrier-based adaptation of the Spitfire that served in the Fleet Air Arm from 1942 through to the mid-1950s. [72] The complex wing design, especially the precision required to manufacture the vital spar and leading-edge structures, caused some major delays in the production of the Spitfire at first. [98] If one cannon seized, the recoil of the other threw the aircraft off aim. [4] A production aircraft cost about £9,500. ", "Monument campaign for WWII female auxiliary pilots", "Eden Camp Modern History Theme Museum, Malton, North Yorkshire", "How realistic are Dunkirk's Spitfire flight scenes? [3] The Spitfire was the only British fighter aircraft to be in continuous production before, during, and after the Second World War. Donald O. Finlay, the commanding officer of 41 Squadron from September 1940 to August 1941, who adopted the aircraft as his personal mount. From 1944 some were built with the “e” wing, which replaced the four .303in machine guns with two .50in heavy machine guns. [75][76] During the Battle of Britain, pilots found the Spitfire's ailerons were far too heavy at high speeds, severely restricting lateral manoeuvres such as rolls and high-speed turns, which were still a feature of air-to-air combat. [29] Full-scale production of the Spitfire began at Supermarine's facility in Woolston, but the order clearly could not be completed in the 15 months promised. The first pilot to fly. The Mk IX was a significant improvement on the Mk V. It had a top speed of 409 mph at 28,000 feet, an increase of 40 miles per hour. The French Dewoitine D.520[52] and the German Messerschmitt Bf 109, for example, were designed to take advantage of new techniques of monocoque construction, and the availability of new, high-powered, liquid-cooled, in-line aero engines. It could climb at 4,000 feet per minute. [18], K5054 was fitted with a new propeller, and Summers flew the aircraft on 10 March 1936; during this flight, the undercarriage was retracted for the first time. After repair, it was used for training until August 1944, when it became one of several Battle of Britain aircraft veterans that were allocated to the Air Historical Branch for future museum preservation. From February 1943 flush riveting was used on the fuselage, affecting all Spitfire variants. [65] The undercarriage legs were attached to pivot points built into the inner, rear section of the main spar, and retracted outwards and slightly backwards into wells in the non-load-carrying wing structure. To carry out the mission of home defence, the design was intended to allow the Spitfire to climb quickly to intercept enemy bombers. British company Historic Flying Limited has either restored or built from scratch a significant proportion of the Spitfires that are now airworthy. The airflow through the main radiator was controlled by pneumatic exit flaps. 8 × .303 in Browning Mk II* machine guns (350 rounds per gun), 2 × 20 mm Hispano Mk II (60 rounds per gun), 4 × .303 in Browning Mk II* machine guns (350 rounds per gun), 4 × 20 mm Hispano Mk II cannon (120 rounds per gun), 2 × 20 mm Hispano Mk II (120 rounds per gun), 2 × 20 mm Hispano Mk II cannon (120 rounds per gun), 2 × .50 in M2 Browning machine guns (250 rounds per gun), Brown, Eric. Invented by Beatrice "Tilly" Shilling, it became known as "Miss Shilling's orifice". Here, Flight Lieutenant Humphrey Edwardes-Jones took over the prototype for the RAF. The main ”hero” of this walkaround session is the Spitfire HF Mk.