Several members were former Socialists (PSI), as Giulio Tremonti (vice-president of the party and former Minister of Economy), Franco Frattini (Vice President of the European Commission), Fabrizio Cicchitto (national deputy-coordinator of the party), Renato Brunetta, Francesco Musotto, Amalia Sartori, Paolo Guzzanti and Margherita Boniver. Governo e opposizione: Lega, M5S, PD, Forza Italia | Scopri di più Partiti politici italiani: Forza Italia Forza Italia Dopo pochi mesi, è risultato il partito più votato nelle elezioni che portarono alla vittoria del centrodestra e al primo governo Berlusconi. Soon after the election Berlusconi formed his fourth government. XVIII Legislatura (dal 23 marzo 2018) Composizione attuale. This led to the disappearance of the five parties which governed Italy from 1947: DC, PSI, PSDI, PLI and PRI (they formed a successful five-party coalition called Pentapartito from 1983 to 1991, and then governed without PRI from 1991 to 1994) and to the end of the so-called First Republic. Forza Italia si è data molto da fare con le alleanze elettorali: nelle sue liste candiderà membri dell’Unione di Centro, del Cantiere Popolare e di IDeA. Anche perché alla fine Forza Italia è stata un po’ sedotta e poi abbandonata da Matteo Salvini. It was the main member of the Pole of Freedoms/Pole of Good Government, Pole for Freedoms and House of Freedoms coalitions. Regional elections in April 2005 were a serious blow for the party, which however remained strong in the northern regions, such as Lombardy and Veneto, and somewhere in the South, where Sicily was a stronghold. Orizzonti Politici è un think tank di studenti e giovani professionisti che condividono la passione per la politica e l’economia. Forza Italia has imparted a deep cultural innovation, combining the language of the Church tradition with the liberal and reformist thought.[4]. The president was the party's leader, but a national coordinator was in charge of internal organisation and day-to-day political activity, similarly to the secretary-general in many European parties. After this disappointing electoral performance the cabinet was reshuffled, due to the insistence of the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats's leaders, and Berlusconi formed his third cabinet. [32], FI's political programme was strongly influenced by the manifesto "In Search of Good Government" (Alla ricerca del buongoverno) authored in late 1993 by Giuliano Urbani who was then a political science professor at Milan's private Bocconi University and an occasional collaborator of Fininvest. [4] Chiara Moroni, who explains Forza Italia's ideology as a mixture of liberal, Christian-democratic and social-democratic values (united in the concept of "popular liberalism" in party documents), wrote that "Berlusconi offered to voters liberal values through a populist style" and that "Forza Italia has made the liberal political ideal popular" among voters, so that "it was spread and shared by broad and heterogenous sectors of the Italian population". Politica italiana Sondaggi politici elettorali 7 Dicembre 2020 12:14 di Tommaso Coluzzi Esibisce peraltro un logo che... Simbolo Gennaro Giardino, residente a Vetralla, si è definito sempre un portavoce del popolo ed ora lascia il partito di Forza Italia. [4] From a comparative perspective the ideology of Forza Italia has been characterized as liberal conservative[3][51][52][53] (or conservative liberal[54]), national conservative[55] and liberal. Key posts in the party structure were appointed by Berlusconi or by his delegates. È quanto rende noto lo staff del leader azzurro. utilizzato nella campagna elettorale della Democrazia Cristiana The citizen is sovereign. Il PPE, primo partito europeo, raccoglie i partiti conservatori e democristiani di tutta Europa. I cittadini meritano una Livorno ben più vivibile. Forza Italia's leader was replaced as Prime Minister by Lamberto Dini, an independent politician who had been the administration's Treasury Minister. Bernini Anna Maria. Its appeal to voters was based on Berlusconi's personality more than on its ideology or programme.[28]. Before being merged into the PdL, Forza Italia had a president (currently Silvio Berlusconi), two vice-presidents (Giulio Tremonti and Roberto Formigoni), a presidential committee (presided by Claudio Scajola) and a national nouncil (presided by Alfredo Biondi). Il PDL, che univa Forza Italia e Alleanza Nazionale (che si sciolse il 22 marzo 2009) rimase in vita dal 29 marzo 2009 al 16 novembre 2013, quando tornò all'iniziale nome di Forza Italia, tutt'oggi ancora attivo. Forza Italia fa il pieno di "mancette" in manovra Salvini festeggia misure per 10 miliardi ottenute dal centrodestra, ma chi realmente ne beneficia è il collaborativo partito del Cav. Forza Italia fa parte del Partito Popolare Europeo. Berlusconi himself was a close friend of Bettino Craxi, leader of the PSI, in spite of his own Christian Democratic and Liberal background (Berlusconi was a DC activist in occasion of the 1948 general election). It denounced corruption, dominance of political parties and remnants of communism as Italy's ills, while advocating market economy, the assertion of civil society and more efficient politics as the solutions. In 2004 European elections, Forza Italia was second place nationally, receiving 20.1% of the vote and returning 16 MEPs. In occasione del lancio della campagna elettorale, Forza Italia ha pubblicato un opuscolo programmatico (scaricabile qui, 48 pagine) che punta su questi temi: Il programma, in versione semplificata, è consultabile anche sul sito www.italiasvegliati.it. From its inception, Forza Italia used unconventional means in regards to European politics. [80][81][82], Given the perceived use of government responsibility to advance Berlusconi's personal and Fininvest's business interests during the period of Forza Italia-led government, the political scientist Patrick McCarthy in 1995 proposed to describe Forza Italia as a "clan" rather than a reform-minded political party. As the main ideologic themes of Berlusconism, Orsina identified the myth of the "good" civil society (as opposed to the state apparatus), a "friendly, minimal state" (providing services to citizens rather than regulating their lives), "hypopolitics" (i.e. In the 1994 European Parliament election held in June, Forza Italia was placed first nationally, with 30.6% of the vote, electing 27 MEPs. The ideology of the party ranged from libertarianism to social democracy (often referred to as "liberal socialism" in Italy), including elements of the Catholic social teaching and the social market economy. Even some former Communists were leading members of the party, such as national party coordinator Sandro Bondi and Ferdinando Adornato. Forza Italia fa parte del Partito Popolare Europeo. [32] This earned Forza Italia labels like "virtual",[33] "plastic"[34] or "business-firm party". In national office, the government's popularity kept declining steadily year after year. Forza Italia (FI; translated to "Forward Italy" or "Let's Go Italy",) was a centre-right political party in Italy with liberal-conservative, Christian-democratic, liberal, social-democratic and populist tendencies. [citation needed], In a 1999 study, political scientists Jonathan Hopkin and Caterina Paolucci likened the organisational model of the party to that of a business firm, describing it as having "a lightweight organisation with the sole basic function of mobilising short-term support at election time". CON SILVIO. The name is not usually translated into English: Combined result of Forza Italia (17.8%) and, traditional social teaching of the Church, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Forza Italia leading members by political origin, ""Forza Italia ha raggiunto quota 400mila iscritti"", "Forza Italia si scioglie, ora è Pdl Berlusconi: "Dal '94 nulla è cambiato, "Oggi nasce il partito del popolo italiano", "Via l'Ici e stretta sulle intercettazioni", "Svolta di Berlusconi, arriva il Pdl: "Forza Italia-An sotto stesso simbolo, "Berlusconi: Forza Italia back and I will be driving it, "Silvio Berlusconi Relaunches Forza Italia on Senate Ousting Vote", "Berlusconi breaks away from Italian government after party splits", "Berlusconi, via alle tre riforme "Facciamo una politica di sinistra, "Fecondazione, divisi i vertici di Forza Italia", "Berlusconi: la Margherita venga con noi moderati", "Pera e la difesa dell' astensione, scontro tra i poli", "Fecondazione, Ruini chiama all' astensione", "The business firm model of party organisation: Cases from Spain and Italy", Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity, Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity, Early 20th-century Italian political parties, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Forza_Italia&oldid=995662516, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2014, Articles needing additional references from November 2014, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Associazione per il buon governo viene costituita, presso lo studio del notaio Roveda a Milano, il 29 giugno 1993 da alcuni noti professionisti, alcuni inseriti nelle aziende controllate da Fininvest, altri comunque vicini al fondatore e proprietario di quest'ultima, Silvio Berlusconi, tra i quali Marcello Dell'Utri, Antonio Martino, Gianfranco Ciaurro, Mario Valducci, Antonio Tajani, Cesare Previti e Giuliano Urbani . Programma Forza Italia e Centrodestra 2018: la questione Europa. [62], We want a social market economy. La lista Europa Verde è costituita principalmente dalla Federazione dei Verdi e da Possibile (il movimento di Civati, uscito dall'esperienza di Liberi e Uguali). [46] In the 2008 general election the PdL won 37.4% and a majority in both chambers, thanks to the alliance with Lega Nord (8.3%). Sondaggio politico. In particular, it hark back to the social market economy of Röpke, which was conceived in reference to the traditional social teaching of the Church. Continuando ad analizzare gli ultimi sondaggi politici vediamo poi la situazione dei partiti minori. Within the party there was a long debate over organisation. The electoral results of FI in general (Chamber of Deputies) and European Parliament elections since 1994 are shown in the chart below. Presidente. In foreign policy he shifted the country's position to more closeness to the United States, while in economic policy he was not able to deliver the tax cuts he had openly promised throughout all 2001 electoral campaign. It is decidedly a left-wing policy. Composizione storica. Following its first European election in 1994, Forza Italia MEPs formed their own political group in the European Parliament called Forza Europa. L'addio a Forza Italia dei deputati Carrara, Ravetto e Zanella è la notizia del giorno, politicamente parlando. I sondaggi politici è un po’ di tempo che lanciano segnali allarmanti per quanto riguarda Forza Italia.Uno in particolare, qualche tempo fa e riservato agli uomini di Berlusconi, aveva fatto capire come in vista delle elezioni europee 2014 il partito rischiasse un clamoroso flop, soprattutto se non ci fosse stato l’ex Cavaliere a guidare la campagna elettorale. The incumbent Berlusconi-led government narrowly lost to The Union coalition, which returned Romano Prodi as Prime Minister, relegating Forza Italia and its House of Freedoms allies to opposition. Il PPE, primo partito europeo, raccoglie i partiti conservatori e democristiani di tutta Europa. Il gruppo parlamentare a cui era iscritto, EFDD, con ogni probabilità non... La Lista Sandro Bondi, a leading member of the party, wrote: Forza Italia considers liberal classics as Croce, Sturzo, Hayek and Einaudi as reference authors. The party did not join an existing group in the European Parliament, instead forming the new group Forza Europa, composed entirely of Forza Italia MEPs.[41]. Moreover, the party had thematic departments and regional, provincial or metropolitan coordination boards plus many affiliate clubs (Club Azzurro) all over Italy. He asserted that the party (and the centre-right camp) was only coherent and disciplined when it came to questions that strongly concerned Berlusconi, while he allowed great liberties to the diverse factions in other issues that did not concern his personal interests.[84]. Giù anche Fratelli d’Italia, ripresa M5s e Forza Italia. Un nome alternativo sarebbe potuto essere "Bella Ciao". [45] Finally, on 8 February, Berlusconi and Fini agreed to form a joint list under the banner of "The People of Freedom", allied with Lega Nord. [50] In a speech during a party congress in 1998, Berlusconi himself proclaimed: "our liberal vision of the State is perfectly in agreement with the Catholic social teaching". In 1996 the Pole for Freedoms coalition led by Forza Italia lost that year's general election and began what Berlusconi called "the crossing of the desert", something that could have proved fatal for such a young and unstructured party. Forza Italia's organisation was based on the idea of a "party of the elected people", giving more importance to the whole electorate than to party's members. [39] In a couple of months Forza Italia became one of the leading Italian parties, achieving a large consensus through an accurate strategy of communication and pounding electoral spots aired by the Mediaset TV channels.[40]. Vecchi alleati di Rivoluzione Cristiana ed Energie per l’Italia si accodano – manca però Stefano Parisi. The core values of Forza Italia were "freedom" and the "centrality of the individual". Il politico torna ad essere “battitore libero” cioè senza appartenere ad un partito politico. It is difficult to say to what faction Berlusconi was closer, what is sure is that his political record was a synthesis of all the political tendencies within the party. Forza Italia si sciolse il 27 marzo 2009, trasformandosi in Popolo delle Libertà. [35][36][37] In her 2001 study of the party, political scientist Emanuela Poli described Forza Italia as "a mere diversification of Fininvest in the political market". It has been claimed that Forza Italia had no internal democracy because there was no way of changing the leader of the party from below (although the party's constitution makes it possible). Members of Forza Italia were divided in factions, which were sometimes mutable and formed over the most important political issues, despite previous party allegiances. [56] Both its Northern strongholds (Lombardy, Veneto) and its Southern strongholds (Sicily, Apulia) were once dominated by the Christian Democracy party, but, while in the South most leading members of Forza Italia are former Christian Democrats, the party was highly influenced also by liberals in the North. During his five years in office, Berlusconi government passed a series of reforms: a pension system reform, a labour market reform, a judiciary reform and a constitutional reform – the latter rejected by a referendum in June 2006. This was the line of the early founders of the party, notably Marcello Dell'Utri and Antonio Martino. Silvio Berlusconi ha usato parole molto dure e si riferisce ai tanti problemi che ci sono in politica, cercando di restare fuori da queste dinamiche.. With our book on welfare we tackle the needs of the weakest families. [36] Several other authors have adopted this comparison,[76][77][78][79] and have labeled Berlusconi as a "political entrepreneur". It was the only party to use the word "President" in its logo. Negli... Dalle presidenziali statunitensi derivano effetti su scala globale. Non si può parlare dell'uomo più potente del mondo, il dittatore cinese Xi Jinping, senza prima conoscere la struttura politica dentro cui è nata... Scopri come i tuoi dati vengono elaborati, Tra privato e realtà: come funziona la sanità in America, Il battito d’ali di Biden causerà uno tsunami in Serbia, Il muro di gomma dell’Australia respinge l’immigrazione. the containment of political conflicts, after the hyper-politisation of Italian society during the "First Republic") and the identification of a "new virtuous elite". Vice President of the President's Committee: This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 05:49. For this, we believe concretely in the individual [...]. L’accordo tra USA e talebani non porta alla pace in Afghanistan, Ultras e politica, una mappa del tifo nelle curve di serie A. Per questo – e per un numero considerevole di questioni che analizzeremo – i riverberi della... La società australiana è fortemente multiculturale: come riportato da Sbs, quasi un terzo della popolazione è nata all’estero. Regarding the latter issue, generally speaking, northern party members were staunch proposers of political and fiscal federalism, and autonomy for the Regions (in some parts of Veneto and Lombardy, it was sometimes difficult to distinguish a member of FI from a leghista), while those coming from the South were more cold on the issue. Movimento Politico Forza Italia. Eppure Silvio Berlusconi ha dichiarato alla stampa di auspicare una svolta a destra, proponendo un’alleanza con l’ECR (conservatori euroscettici) e con i sovranisti. According to him, in the initial phase, both elements were represented about equally, only after 2000 pro-market liberal positions had receded in favour of more socially conservative ones. Most members of the party were former Christian Democrats (DC): Giuseppe Pisanu (former member of the leftist faction of DC and Minister of Interior), Roberto Formigoni (President of Lombardy), Claudio Scajola (former Minister of the Interior and of Industry), Enrico La Loggia, Renato Schifani, Guido Crosetto, Raffaele Fitto, Giuseppe Gargani, Alfredo Antoniozzi, Giorgio Carollo, Giuseppe Castiglione, Francesco Giro, Luigi Grillo, Maurizio Lupi, Mario Mantovani, Mario Mauro, Osvaldo Napoli, Antonio Palmieri, Angelo Sanza, Riccardo Ventre and Marcello Vernola are only some remarkable examples. Il candidato del PPE sarà Manfred Weber, tedesco della CSU (il partito baverese gemello della CDU di Angela Merkel), già capogruppo del PPE al Parlamento Europeo. In the election for the Chamber of Deputies, FI scored 23.7% and 137 seats, in those for the Senate 24.0%, without counting Trentino-Alto Adige, whose seats were contested on first-past-the-post basis and which is a left-wing stronghold, due to its alliance with the autonomist South Tyrolean People's Party). Group of the European People's Party. [21], Alessandro Campi has written that "the political culture of Forza Italia – a curious and, on many respects, untold mixture of "liberalism" and "democratic populism" – deserves to be described as an "anti-ideological ideology", [...] as a synthesis or fusion of very diverse political families and traditions (from liberal Catholicism to social conservatism, from reformist socialism to economic liberalism), kept together by the mobilizing appeal to "freedom"". It took four years until the first party congress was held. On 21 November 2008 the national council of the party, presided over by Alfredo Biondi and attended by Berlusconi himself, officially decided the dissolution of Forza Italia into The People of Freedom (PdL), whose official foundation took place on 27 March 2009. Nella nuova Forza Italia è confluita la maggioranza degli esponenti del Popolo della Libertà, che si è sciolto il 16 Novembre 2013 successivamente alla scissione del Nuovo Centrodestra. Forza Italia’s methods more closely resembled the American model, and utilized methods such as: stickering, SMS messaging, and mass-mailing of campaign material. However, Berlusconi was highly popular among his party fellows, and it was unlikely he could have been overthrown if such an election had occurred. [47] The modern-day Forza Italia was launched on 18 September 2013[48] and the PdL was dissolved into the new party on 16 November 2013. [...] Freedom is not graciously conceded by the State, because it comes before it. Forza Italia in calo (6,6%) Prosegue la discesa di Forza Italia. Di Battista: «Occorre il politometro per far luce sui patrimoni dei politici» "La verità è che si può cambiare il mondo o almeno il mondo che ci circonda, è sempre una questione di orizzonti." The establishment of Forza Italia was supported in terms of finance, personnel and logistics by Berlusconi's Fininvest corporation: The area managers of its advertisement branch Publitalia '80 (managed by Dell'Utri)[30] organised the selection of FI candidates, its marketing network staffed the opinion research centre Diakron that surveyed the "market potential" of the new party and the financial intermediaries of Fininvest subsidiary Programma Italia encouraged the launch of Forza Italia clubs. Contattaci: info@orizzontipolitici.it, © Orizzonti Politici - Credits: LGC Web Agency. However it is possible to distinguish some patterns. Between 1996 and 1998, the party started to strengthen its organisation under Claudio Scajola, a former Christian Democrat who served as national coordinator of Forza Italia from 1996 to 2001. In the same year, the party scored well (25.2% of votes) in the European Parliament election of 1999. Altri candidati provengono dal Movimento per le Autonomie e da tre importanti partiti autonomisti: il Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese, la Slovenska Skupnost e la Südtiroler Volkspartei, alleato del centrosinistra che ha però scelto di schierarsi con i suoi parenti europei del Partito Popolare. Also Antonio Martino and Giancarlo Galan were formers Liberals, Jas Gawronski was a leading Republican, while Marcello Pera has a Socialist and Radical background. Vicepresidente Vicario. Questo sito usa Akismet per ridurre lo spam. Cambiano schieramento invece i liberali del PLI, che alla scorsa tornata elettorale si era schierato con la Lega. Italy was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known as Tangentopoli and the subsequent police investigation, called Mani pulite. While Pera campaigned hard for the success of the boycott along with most FI members, both Berlusconi and Tremonti explicitly said that "abstention" was their personal opinion, not the official one of the party. (pagina precedente) (pagina successiva) Foreign Minister, Cesare Previti Defence Minister, Alfredo Biondi Justice Minister and Giulio Tremonti (at the time an independent member of Parliament) Finance Minister. Many were former Liberals (PLI), Republicans (PRI) and Social Democrats (PSDI): Alfredo Biondi (president of Forza Italia's national council) and Raffaele Costa, both former PLI leaders, and former PSDI leader Carlo Vizzini were later MPs for Forza Italia. Malan Lucio. In June 2001, after the huge success in May elections, Silvio Berlusconi was returned head of the Italian government, the longest-serving cabinet in the history of the Italian republic. Forza Italia was formed in 1993 by Silvio Berlusconi, a successful businessman and owner of four of the main private television stations in Italy, along with Antonio Martino, Mario Valducci, Antonio Tajani, Marcello Dell'Utri, Cesare Previti and Giuliano Urbani. On 31 July 2007 Berlusconi's protegee and possible successor Michela Vittoria Brambilla registered the name and the logo of the "Freedom Party" (Partito della Libertà) apparently with Berlusconi's backing. In December 1999, Forza Italia gained full membership in the European People's Party,[42] of which Antonio Tajani, the party leader of Forza Italia in the European Parliament, became a Vice President. Condividi tramite. The party was founded in December 1993 and won its first general election soon afterwards in March 1994. Ma Forza Italia non ha voluto. FI is considered a prototypical example of the business-firm party, in that it was strongly centered on Berlusconi, who had created the party to further his own private interests.[71][72][73][74][75]. Ma Paolo Romani è un pioniere delle tv private. A scheme of the internal factions within Forza Italia could be this: Christian democrats and liberal-centrists were undoubtedly the strongest factions within the party, but all four were mainstream for a special issue: for example liberals and liberal-centrists were highly influential over economic policy, Christian democrats led the party over ethical issues (although there was a substantial minority promoting a more progressive outlook), while social democrats had their say in defining the party's policy over labour market reform and, moreover, it is thanks to this group (and to those around Tremonti, he himself a former Socialist) that constitutional reform was at the top of Forza Italia's political agenda. The "Secular Creed" of the party explains that FI was a party that primarily underlined freedom and the centrality of the individual, which are basic principles of both liberalism[61] and the Catholic social teaching, often connected in party official documents: We believe in freedom, in all its several and vital forms: in the freedom of thought, in the freedom of expression, in religious freedom, of every religion, in the freedom of association. [38] The case of Forza Italia was unprecedented as never before had a large political party been launched by a business corporation. Silvio Berlusconi was sworn in May 1994 as Prime Minister of Italy in a government in which the most important cabinet posts were held by fellow Forza Italia members: Antonio Martino was [50], The "Secular Creed", that was also the preamble to the party's constitution, described the party in this way: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, Forza Italia is a liberal party although not an elitist one, indeed a popular liberal-democratic party; it is a Catholic party although not a confessional one; it is a secular party, although not an intolerant and secularist one; it is a national party, although not a centralist one. Pagine nella categoria "Politici di Forza Italia (2013)" Questa categoria contiene le 200 pagine indicate di seguito, su un totale di 291. [50][third-party source needed] The party was a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and presented itself as the party of renewal and modernization. However, Berlusconi viewed "the people" as a pluralistic and diverse collection of individuals, not an ethnically, historically and culturally homogeneous unit.[69][70]. There was nominally no internal opposition (although some critical voices raised up, such as those of Senators Paolo Guzzanti and Raffaele Iannuzzi). Scelto in un contest aperto al pubblico tra 6 possibili, esibisce il nome "la sinistra". The first Berlusconi-led government had a short life and fell in December, when Lega Nord left the coalition, after disagreements over pension reform and the first avviso di garanzia (preliminary notice of an investigation) for Berlusconi, passed by Milan prosecutors.