[53] On the North Prospect of the City of Edenburgh engraving, the flag is indistinct. [9] By 1627 a small Union Jack was commonly flown in this position. In addition to being an official ceremonial flag, the Union Flag also defaces the flags of a number of Canadian provinces, including British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario. [76] This difference arose after Members of the Scottish Parliament complained that Scotland was the only country in the world that could not fly its national flag on its national day. Its first recorded recognition as a national flag came in 1908, when it was stated in Parliament that "the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag". [46] One version showed St George's cross with St Andrew's cross in the canton, and another version placed the two crosses side by side. [25], The Butcher's Apron is a pejorative term for the flag, common among Irish republicans, citing the blood-streaked appearance of the flag and referring to atrocities committed in Ireland and other countries under British colonial rule. What happened on this day in history. The Union Jack is worn at the masthead of a ship to indicate the presence of the Sovereign or an Admiral of the Fleet. [38] The Queen's Colours of Army regiments are 36 by 43 inches (910 mm × 1,090 mm); on them, the bars of the cross and saltire are of equal width; so are their respective fimbriations, which are very narrow.[39]. [26][27] In 2006, Sandra White, a Member of the Scottish Parliament, caused a furore when the term was used in a press release under her name. The flag is created with the aspects of three older national flags; St George’s Red Cross of the kingdom of England, St Andrew’s white saltire of Scotland, and St Patrick’s red saltire of the Irelands. The ground of the current Union Flag is a deep "navy" blue (Pantone 280), which can be traced to the colour used for the Blue Ensign of the Royal Navy's historic "Blue Squadron". The Union Flag was used as the flag of Canada until it was re-adopted as a ceremonial flag, and the Maple Leaf flag made the official national flag in 1965. The fimbriation of the cross of St George separates its red from the red of the saltire. The term "Union Jack" refers to the flag being a union between three national flags. The flag also has official status in Canada, by parliamentary resolution, where it is known as the Royal Union Flag. [22], Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945, referred to the flag of the United Kingdom as the Union Jack. The flag of the Chilean city of Coquimbo features the Union Jack, owing to its historical commercial links to Britain. She said, "the Government is keen to make the Union Flag a positive symbol of Britishness reflecting the diversity of our country today and encouraging people to take pride in our flag." [54], On 17 April 1707, just two weeks prior to the Acts of Union coming into effect, and with Sir Henry St George, the younger, the Garter King of Arms, having presented several designs of flag to Queen Anne and her Privy Council for consideration, the flag for the soon to be unified Kingdom of Great Britain was chosen. As the two flags had to be the same size, it meant that the Union Jack was made in the ratio 2:3 rather than the usual 1:2. There are various theories as to how it became known as the ‘Union Jack’. Because the Union Flag is not symmetric, many people unknowingly hang it upside down - so here's a handy guide, read on. When the Union of South Africa was established in 1910, the Union Jack was treated as its official flag. The Royal Union flag alongside the flag of Canada and the flag of British Columbia, at Stanley Park in Vancouver. The Union Jack is a fine expression of unity as well as diversity. In 1980, the flag of Newfoundland was adopted as the new provincial flag, with the design for the new flag of Newfoundland being derived from the Union Flag. The pre-1801 Union Flag also sees limited use by private organizations, most notably the United Empire Loyalists Association of Canada.[104]. The interior core of the Union Jack is the English flag, represented by the Cross of St. George the patron saint of England. [88], The parliamentary resolution requires the Royal Union Flag to be flown alongside the flag of Canada (if there are at least two flag poles available) at federal government buildings, federally-operated airports, military installations, at the masthead of Royal Canadian Navy ships within Canadian waters, and other appropriate establishments on Commonwealth Day, Victoria Day (the monarch's official birthday in Canada), 11 December (the anniversary of the enactment of the Statute of Westminster 1931), and when otherwise instructed to do so by the National Defence Headquarters. These are used in cases where it is illegal to fly the Union Flag, such as at sea from a ship other than a British warship. On this day in history in 1606, the Union Jack was created. Since she died childless and was unmarried, the crown was given to James VI who was her cousin and also the king of Scotland. The present design of the Union Flag dates from a Royal proclamation following the union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. The resultant flag was the Union Flag or Union Jack with Jack as the short form of Jacobus which is a Latin word for James. The continued use of the Union Jack as national flag became an issue in the 1920s, when the government proposed to introduce a National Flag of the Union. Jack comes from the Latin for James, Jacobus. [90] British maritime flags were used by New Zealand vessels until 1865, with the passage of the Colonial Naval Defence Act. Normal practice for British ships is to fly the White ensign (Royal Navy), the Red ensign (Merchant and private boats) or the Blue ensign (government departments and public corporations). Four former British colonies in Oceania which are now independent countries incorporate the Union Jack as part of their national flags: Australia, New Zealand and Tuvalu, which have retained the monarchy; and Fiji, which abolished the monarchy in 1987. Then, during the reign of Queen Anne, the parliaments of England and Scotland were united to form the new nation of Great Britain, and Anne officially adopted the 101 year old banner as the national flag of the newly created nation. – Cross of St. Patrick on British Flag", "Rebranding puts black marks against UK flag", "The new face of Britain Flag poll results", "What would the union jack look like if the Scottish bit were removed? The UK is made up of the Island of Great Britain, Ireland, and other smaller islands. A book[clarification needed] issued to British consuls in 1855 states that the white bordered Union Flag is to be hoisted for a pilot. The Union Jack was established by Royal Proclamation under the Act of Union and is as much a matter of prerogative as the Royal Standard. The Union Flag also appears in the canton (upper flagstaff-side quarter) of the flags of several nations and territories that are former British possessions or dominions, as well as the state flag of Hawaii. In 1606, it was combined with the cross saltire of … [21], The size and power of the Royal Navy internationally at the time could also explain why the flag was named the "Union Jack"; considering the navy was so widely utilised and renowned by the United Kingdom and colonies, it is possible that the term jack occurred because of its regular use on all British ships using the jackstaff (a flag pole attached to the bow of a ship). [87] The move was a concession given to those who preferred to adopt the Canadian Red Ensign as a formal national flag. This is counterchanged with the saltire of St Andrew, such that the white always follows the red clockwise. "[59] Though remaining within the United Kingdom, the new government of Northern Ireland dispensed with the St Patrick's Saltire in favour of a new flag derived from the coat-of-arms of the Burkes, Earls of Ulster, and quite similar to England's St George's Cross. References * "It is often stated that the Union Flag should only be described as the Union Jack when flown in the bows of a warship, but this is a relatively recent idea. David Prothero, 13 June 2005. image by Željko Heimer, 28 September 2019. The Basque Country's flag, the Ikurriña, is also loosely based on the Union Jack, reflecting the significant commercial ties between Bilbao and Britain at the time the Ikurriña was designed in 1894. [94][93], The flying of the Union Jack alongside the National Flag ended on 6 April 1957. Also in the United States, the Union Flag of 1606 is incorporated into the flag of Baton Rouge, the capital city of Louisiana. Union Jack and Union Flag are used interchangeably to refer to the flag of the UK. No unique name was given to it during the royal proclamation. Union Jack History continued. Bicentennial celebrations, it was in … To keep any one of the three flags from having precedence, the Union Jack is spread horizontally from the Orange Free State flag towards the hoist; closest to the hoist, it is in the superior position but since it is reversed it does not precede the other flags. The Union Flag, or Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. [94][93], Under these arrangements, the Union Jack was subordinate to the National Flag. Union Jack at crossing sends mixed message - Ottawa - CBC News", "Flags of New Zealand Page 3 - Union Jack", "Italian beach operators hoist British flag in protest at EU law", "Flag-waving Grandma Wong gives Hong Kong protesters lesson in endurance", "Colonial nostalgia rules in Hong Kong as young refuse to accept China's authority", "Explainer: The conflicting messages behind protesters' use of the colonial Hong Kong flag", "Are Hong Kong protesters pro-American or British when they wave the US and UK flags? On 30 November, (St Andrew's Day), the Union Flag can be flown in Scotland only where a building has more than one flagpole—on this day the Saltire will not be lowered to make way for the Union Flag if there is only one flagpole. [55] However, the Queen and her Council approved Sir Henry's original effort, numbered "one". "Symbol of Unity") is the official flag of the United Kingdom, and a spiritual artifact used by the royalty of England and is the foundation of power controlled by Curtana Original and Curtana Second. Although the colour schemes are official, not all of the colours are completely congruent. There’s a Right Way to Display It. The UK consists of four countries including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Irelands with the last three having a devolved administration. Because the Union Flag is not symmetric, many people unknowingly hang it upside down - so here's a handy guide, read on. "The following is a list of stations at which the national flag (Union Jack) is authorised to be hoisted on anniversaries only, or when specially required for saluting purposes." Miss McCaul was determined that they should have the opportunity to do this and see London and all its sights. The version used is the modern flag, whereas the 1707 flag would have been used in colonial Alabama. John Cabot could have unfurled the Cross of St. George — consisting of a red cross on a white field — in 1497 when he claimed North America for the English Crown. [77] Non-government organisations may fly the Union Flag whenever they choose. The Union Jack,[note 1][2][3] or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. Along with the national flag, many other Australian flags retain the use of the Union Jack, including the Royal Australian Navy Ensign (also known as the Australian White Ensign), the Royal Australian Air Force Ensign, the Australian Red Ensign (for use by merchant and private vessels), and the Australian Civil Aviation Ensign. The Miskito people sometimes use a similar flag that also incorporates the Union Jack in its canton, due to long periods of contact in the Mosquito Coast. The HBC jack is no longer in use and replaced with a corporate flag featuring the company's coat of arms. For other uses, see, Flag speculation after Irish independence, It has been claimed that "Union Jack" was the name given to the flag flown on the ", Graham Bartram (born 1963), a British vexillologist who is, as of 2013, by the 1970s, "its current official dimension of l/30th the width of the flag". [8], A proclamation issued by King George III at the time of the Union of 1801 concerned flags at sea and repeatedly referred to "Ensigns, Flags, Jacks, and Pendants" and forbade merchant vessels from wearing "Our Jack, commonly called the Union Jack" nor any pendants or colours used by the King's ships. By 1674, the flag was being referred to as Union Jack which finally became its official name. The Court of the Lord Lyon, which has legal jurisdiction in heraldic matters in Scotland, confirms that the Union Jack "is the correct flag for all citizens and corporate bodies of the United Kingdom to fly to demonstrate their loyalty and their nationality. It is also used extensively in Commonwealth countries. The Union Jack became the standard “Navy Jack” on June 14, 1777. In this regard, Sir James Craig, the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland remarked in December 1921 that he and his government were "glad to think that our decision [to remain part of United Kingdom] will obviate the necessity of mutilating the Union Jack. It is used by Queen Elizard to spread the power of Curtana to everyone in England. UK is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II being the sitting monarch. It may come from the 'jack-et' of the English or Scottish soldiers, or from the name of James I who originated the first union in 1603. Roger Stern and John Byrne introduced Chapman in Captain America #253 (January 1981); in the story he is visits his friend Kenneth Crichton, grandson of original Union Jack Lord Falsworth, at Falsworth Manor and ends up putting on the costume to help Captain America in his final battle against Baron Blood.. 1990s publications A YouGov poll showed less than half of the UK population knows the history or even how to correctly fly the Union Flag … which may also be called the Union Jack. Unauthorised use of the flag in the 17th century to avoid paying harbour duties – a privilege restricted to naval ships – caused James's successor, Charles I, to order that use of the flag on naval vessels be restricted to His Majesty's ships "upon pain of Our high displeasure. [41] In 1634, King Charles I restricted its use to the royal ships. To remove all reference to Ireland from the present Union Jack and Royal Arms would be vastly more expensive.[57]. The Bill sought to formalise the position of the Union Flag as the national flag of the UK in law, to remove legal obstacles to its regular display and to officially recognise the name 'Union Jack' as having equal status with 'Union Flag'. One theory goes that for some years it would have been called just the "Jack", or "Jack flag", or the "King's Jack", but by 1674, while formally referred to as "His Majesty's Jack", it was commonly called the "Union Jack", and this was officially acknowledged. Rows of Union flags line each side of The Mall, London. Heraldry experts say that alterations in arms are very expensive. When the Anglo-Irish Treaty was concluded on 6 December 1921 and the creation of the new Irish Free State was an imminent prospect, the question arose as to whether the cross of Saint Patrick should remain in the Union Jack. The Union Jack The Union Flag, popularly known as the *Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom. Radburn, A. [8] The flag combines aspects of three older national flags: the red cross of St George for the Kingdom of England, the white saltire of St Andrew for Scotland and the red saltire of St Patrick to represent Ireland. The terms Union Jack and Union Flag are both used historically for describing the national flag of the United Kingdom. Other Commonwealth countries (such as India and Jamaica) may follow similar ensign etiquette as the UK, replacing the Union Flag with their own national flag. [90] The issue of flying the flag of the United Tribes alongside the Union Jack, as a symbol of their equal standing with the colonial government, served as a factor that led to the Flagstaff War, led by Ngāpuhi chief Hōne Heke. This changed dramatically in 1603 on the death of Elizabeth I of England. This royal flag was, at first, to be used only at sea on civil and military ships of both England and Scotland, whereas land forces continued to use their respective national banners. The drawing at the end of this letter was deliberately facetious, teasing her for going down-market, and in the accompanying letter he wrote, "Your title 'The Anglo Saxon' with its motto 'Blood is thicker than water' only needs the Union Jack & the Star Spangled Banner crossed on the cover to be suited to one of Harmsworth’s cheap Imperialist productions."[23][relevant? Few flags are as recognizable as the Union Jack, the national flag of the United Kingdom. Then the badge is incorporated in their police flag. The Jack – A small flag worn on a jackstaff on the stem of Naval Vessels. We have, with the advice of our Council, ordered: That from henceforth all our Subjects of this Isle and Kingdome of Great Britaine, and all our members thereof, shall beare in their main-toppe the Red Crosse, commonly called St George's Crosse, and the White Crosse, commonly called St Andrew’s Crosse, joyned together according to the forme made by our heralds, and sent by Us to our Admerall to be published to our Subjects: and in their fore-toppe our Subjects of South Britaine shall weare the Red Crosse onely as they were wont, and our Subjects of North Britaine in their fore-toppe the White Crosse onely as they were accustomed.[40]. In this way, the kingdoms of Scotland and England were united in the person of James (though they were officially united in 1707).. The Commissioners' flag of the Northern Lighthouse Board continues to use the pre-1801 design in the canton. The Royal Navy which was also powerful at the same time also informed the name Union Jack given to the flag. The Navy Ship was commonly used by the UK and its colonies with the British ship using the jack staff or the pole for the flag and was attached to the bow of the ship. The Stuart Crown, 1603-1714. A thin white stripe, or fimbriation, separates the red cross from the blue field, in accordance with heraldry's rule of tincture where colours (like red and blue) must be separated from each other by metals (like white, i.e. Union Jack is incorporated by four former British colonies as a part of their national flags. 11 . No law recognized law make the Union Jack as the kingdom’s national flag, but it was upgraded to one through precedents. Learn more about the 400-year history of the national flag of the United Kingdom: the Union Flag (or Union Jack). The Union Jack is a transnational flag full of historical significance. James Montgomery FalsworthBrian FalsworthJoseph ChapmanKenneth CrichtonVampire Avengers(Earth-3931)Union JacksEarth X(Earth-9997) The Union Jack has been in existence since 1606, when England and Scotland merged, but changed to its current form in 1801 when Ireland joined the United Kingdom. The word Jack was used before the 17th century as a description for the maritime bow flag. Civilian use is permitted on land, but use of the unmodified flag at sea is restricted to military vessels. The Admiralty in 1864 settled all official flags at proportions of 1:2, but the relative widths of the crosses remained unspecified, with the above conventions becoming standardised in the 20th century. The 1910–1928 flag was a Red Ensign with the Union coat of arms in the fly. In the case of the Union Flag, the difference is subtle and is easily missed by the uninformed. Miss McCaul’s tireless fundraising efforts began in 1903 with concerts, entertainment and events throughout the country. [31], Flags that have the Union Jack in the canton should always be 1:2 to preserve the square fly area. The Cross of St. George was succeeded by the first version of the Royal Union Flag, created in 1606 through the combination of the red Cross of St. George with the white saltire Cross of St. Andre… Ireland had been under English control since 1171 but had always stayed as a kingdom in personal union with the English crown. [74], The current flag days where the Union Flag should be flown from government buildings throughout the UK are:[75], In addition, the Union Flag should be flown in the following areas on specified days:[75]. Members of the Hong Kong Autonomy Movement, the Hong Kong independence movement, and Hong Kong localists have also been seen wielding the Union Flag, or the colonial flag of Hong Kong. James VI of Scotland had inherited the English and Irish thrones in 1603 as James I, thereby uniting the crowns of England, Scotland, and Ireland in a personal union, although the three kingdoms remained separate states. A Reading Comprehension to be used after a CLIL lesson on Geography. If anything the jack-staff is named after the Union Jack - and not the other way around! However, on 23 April, St George's Day, it is the Union Flag of the United Kingdom that is flown over UK government offices in England. [20], It is often stated that a flag upside down is a form of distress signal or even a deliberate insult. The Cross of St. George was to be flown from the foremasts of the English ships, while the Cross of St. Andrew was to be flown form the foremasts of the Scottish ships. And except for a symbolic 14-month period during the 1976 U.S. The flag does not have reflection symmetry due to the slight pinwheeling of the St Patrick's and St Andrew's crosses, technically the counterchange of saltires. [100] Some pro-democracy protestors that flew foreign flags, including the Union Flag, did so in an effort to attract international media attention to the protests, while others did so in an effort to irritate the central government of China. National flag of the United Kingdom.The earl of Nottingham's designs after the accession of James I and VI yielded to the 1606 superimposition of the red cross of St George (), bordered by its own white field, upon the saltire of St Andrew on a blue field.An Irish harp at the centre was added by Cromwell but withdrawn after the Restoration. 0. All of the coloured ensigns contain the union flag as part of the design. Because the Queen died unmarried and childless, the English crown passed to the next available heir, her cousin James VI, King of Scotland. [63] He said the Union Jack currently only represented the other three UK nations, and Minister for Culture, Creative Industries and Tourism Margaret Hodge conceded that Lucas had raised a valid point for debate. The current design of the flag dates back to 1801 during the Royal Decree after the union of the England and Ireland. The Kingdom of Ireland was also not represented in the original version of the flag with the flag of the Protectorate between 1658 and 1660 escutcheoned with the Ireland’s arms. Probably it will be found that the deletion is not absolutely necessary. The term Union Jack possibly dates from Queen Anne's time (r. 1702–14), but its origin is uncertain. The Union Jack was introduced into South Africa in 1795, and except for the period 1803-06, it was an official flag until 1957. The Union Flag is sometimes known as the Union Jack after its creator, James I of England, James VI of Scots. Wales was not recognized in the flag because it had been part of England since 1282. "[30], The Union Jack is normally twice as long as it is tall, a ratio of 1:2. A painted wooden ceiling boss from Linlithgow Palace, dated to about 1617, depicts the Scottish royal unicorn holding a flag where a blue Saltire surmounts the red cross of St. George. The flag was finally adopted by the armies operating on land although the shade of blue used on the field resembled that of the flag of Scotland. The Union Jack was to be flown alongside the National Flag at the Houses of Parliament, from the principal government buildings in the capitals, at Union ports, on government offices abroad, and at such other places as the government might determine. and in King George III's proclamation of 1 January 1801 concerning the arms and flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: And that the Union Flag shall be Azure, the Crosses Saltires of St. Andrew and St. Patrick Quarterly per Saltire, counterchanged Argent and Gules; the latter fimbriated of the Second, surmounted by the Cross of St. George of the Third, fimbriated as the Saltire : ...[18], When the first flag representing Britain was introduced on the proclamation of King James I in 1606,[19] it became known simply as the "British flag" or the "flag of Britain". In the 2016 Reed's Nautical Almanac, the only entry where this might appear, section 5.21, covering Flag Etiquette, does not include this statement. There’s a prevalent urban myth that its … [36], On 3 February 2009, the BBC reported that the flag had been inadvertently flown upside-down by the UK government at the signing of a trade agreement with Chinese premier Wen Jiabao. Why is the British Flag Called the Union Jack? [41], The Kingdom of Ireland, which had existed as a personal union with England since 1541, was likewise unrepresented in the original versions of the Union Jack. The actual flag, preserved in the National Maritime Museum, is a cruder approximation of the proper specifications; this was common in 18th and early 19th century flags.[44][45]. 1902 However, the fact that it was likely that Northern Ireland would choose not to remain part of the Irish Free State after its foundation and remain in the United Kingdom, gave better grounds for keeping the cross of St. Patrick in the Union Jack. By Simon - November 14, 2020 - in Tattoo History, Tattoo Meanings. The term "Union Jack" refers to the flag being a union between three national flags. Newfoundland and Labrador uses a flag that was derived from the Union Flag, with the Union Jack serving as the flag of Newfoundland until 1980. Union Jack History. In South Africa, the Union Jacks flown alongside the National Flag between 1928 and 1957 were 2:3 flags. The term "Union Flag" is used in King Charles I's 1634 proclamation: ... none of Our Subjects, of any of Our Nations and Kingdoms shall from henceforth presume to carry the Union Flag in the Main top, or other part of any of their Ships (that is) St Georges cross and St Andrew's Cross joined together upon pain of Our high displeasure, but that the same Union Flag be still reserved as an ornament proper for Our own Ships and Ships in our immediate Service and Pay, and none other."[17]. Battle scene from Ray Wenban's The Revolt at Eureka. But, … The flag is also used in some of the smaller UK overseas territories as the official flag. 2. The current and second Union Jack dates from 1 January 1801 with the Act of Union 1800, which merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. "[citation needed] It remains a criminal offence under the Merchant Shipping Act 1995[70] to display the Union Flag (other than the "pilot jack" – see below) from a British ship. On 12 April 1606, a new flag to represent this regal union between England and Scotland was specified in a royal decree, according to which the flag of England, a red cross on a white background, known as St George's Cross, and the flag of Scotland, a white saltire (X-shaped cross, or St Andrew's Cross) on a blue background, would be joined, forming the flag of England and Scotland for maritime purposes. A Reading Comprehension to be used after a CLIL lesson on Geography. argent or silver). Such use was given Parliamentary approval in 1908 when it was stated that “the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag”." This is not the equivalent of the ensigns of the other armed services but is used at recruiting and military or sporting events, when the army needs to be identified but the reverence and ceremony due to the regimental flags and the Union Jack would be inappropriate. The history behind the Union Jack has been one of gradual evolution of the flag as the relationships between the four 'nations' of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland (now just Northern Ireland) have developed over time. In 1606, King James VI ordered for the creation of a flag which bore the crosses of both St George and St Andrew. The Union Jack (also Union flag, union jack) is regarded as the official flag of the United Kingdom, although technically no law to that effect has ever been passed. The UK has several national symbols some of which are unique to its constituent countries. The day of the prorogation of a Session of the Houses of Parliament, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 18:40. The full meaning of the term "Union Jack" may therefore truly be construed as the Union of Jacob. [88] When used to represent the United Kingdom, the Union Flag takes precedence before the flag of a Canadian province/territory. In 1938, Brian's father, Lord Montgomery Falsworth, was outraged at British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlin's policy of appeasement towards Adolf Hitler's German regime. The arguments between the two grew more heated as time passed, until finally Brian left home because of them. When statically displayed, the hoist is on the observer's left. The first "Jack" came into use when James VI of Scotland became king also of England in 1603.