[123] However, open protest against the government, even if peaceful, is not tolerated. In 2007, King Abdullah issued royal decrees reforming the judiciary and creating a new court system,[194] and, in 2009, the King made a number of significant changes to the judiciary's personnel at the most senior level by bringing in a younger generation. [97] This alliance formed in the 18th century provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion and remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today. [71] The third state occurred during the early 3rd century BC with bursting economic activity between the south and north that made Lihyan acquire large influence suitable to its strategic position on the caravan road. Translate Arabia Saudita. [88][89] The Jabrids took control of the region after overthrowing the Jarwanids in the 15th century and clashed with Hormuz for more than two decades over the region for its economic revenues, until finally agreeing to pay tribute in 1507. Subject to this suzerainty, Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers,[101][102] with the Sharif of Mecca having pre-eminence and ruling the Hejaz. [185] The family is second in prestige only to the Al Saud (the royal family)[186] with whom they formed a "mutual support pact"[187] and power-sharing arrangement nearly 300 years ago. [270] Saudi Arabia was also involved in the CIA-led Timber Sycamore covert operation to train and arm Syrian rebels. Arabia saudita 1. Known records from Uruk refer to a place called Dilmun, associated in several occasions with copper and in later period it was a source of imported woods in southern Mesopotamia. Since 2000, the government has increasingly relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants. [265], On 25 March 2015, Saudi Arabia, spearheading a coalition of Sunni Muslim states,[266] started a military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings. [600][601] The Saudi religious studies curriculum is taught outside the Kingdom via Saudi-linked madrasah, schools, and clubs throughout the world. [199][200] The system has also been criticized for being arcane,[201] lacking in some of the safeguards of justice, and unable to deal with the modern world. [citation needed], Saudi Arabia's relations with the West began to cause growing concern among some of the ulema and students of sharia law and was one of the issues that led to an increase in Islamist terrorism in Saudi Arabia, as well as Islamist terrorist attacks in Western countries by Saudi nationals. [582], On 1 August 2019, Saudi Arabia allowed women to travel abroad, register a divorce or a marriage, and apply for official documents without the consent of a male guardian. In the case of the Al Saud, this is Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin, the father of the dynasty's 18th-century founder, Muhammad bin Saud. [547] The World Economic Forum 2010 Global Gender Gap Report ranked Saudi Arabia 129th out of 134 countries for gender parity. By 1984, it had become self-sufficient in wheat. [481] The Saudi government has often been viewed as an active oppressor of Shia Muslims because of the funding of the Wahhabi ideology which denounces the Shia faith. The main factors that influence the culture of Saudi Arabia are Islamic heritage and Bedouin traditions as well as its historical role as an ancient trade center. [447] Saudi Arabia allows Christians to enter the country as foreign workers for temporary work, but does not allow them to practice their faith openly. As a result, there has been a phenomenal growth in the production of all basic foods. The regions are further divided into 118 governorates (Arabic: محافظات‎; muhafazat, sing. As in other Arab countries of the Arabian Peninsula, machbūs (kabsa), a rice dish with lamb, chicken, fish or shrimp, is among the national dishes as well as the dish mandi (food). The Asir region differs in that it is influenced by the Indian Ocean monsoons, usually occurring between October and March. [182] The government's response to the crisis included strengthening the ulema's powers and increasing their financial support:[115] in particular, they were given greater control over the education system[182] and allowed to enforce stricter observance of Wahhabi rules of moral and social behaviour. [495] Public support for the traditional political/religious structure of the kingdom is so strong that one researcher interviewing Saudis found virtually no support for reforms to secularize the state. Flat, unleavened taboon bread is a staple of virtually every meal, as are dates, fresh fruit, yoghurt and hummus. Many of the unusual offshore reef formations defy classic (i.e., Darwinian) coral reef classification schemes, and are generally attributed to the high levels of tectonic activity that characterize the area. [493], "Fierce religious resistance" had to be overcome to permit such innovations as paper money (in 1951), female education (1964), and television (1965) and the abolition of slavery (1962). Il simbolo della Mecca più famoso in tutto il mondo è la Kaaba, l’edificio dalla forma cubica che riveste una grande importanza religiosa per i musulmani in quanto, secondo il Corano, sarebbe stato costruito da Abramo. [423][424], Its population is also quite young with over half the population under 25 years old. [16], Arabs originating from modern-day Saudi Arabia, the Hejaz in particular, founded the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661–750), Abbasid (750–1517) and the Fatimid (909–1171) caliphates. Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a country in Western Asia constituting the vast majority of the Arabian Peninsula.With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km 2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in Western Asia, the second-largest in the Arab world (after Algeria), the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world. In 2018, superstars like John Cena, Kevin Owens and Daniel Bryan refused to fly to Saudi, over the Kingdom's declining human rights records citing Jamal Khashoggi's assassination. [502][501] No churches, temples or other non-Muslim houses of worship are permitted in the country. [404], The Kingdom's most dramatic agricultural accomplishment, noted worldwide, was its rapid transformation from importer to exporter of wheat. Ufficio Stampa ufficio.stampa@arabia-saudita.it. [520] A new center, the King Salman Complex for the Prophet's Hadith, was established that year to monitor interpretations of the Prophet Mohammed's hadiths to prevent them being used to justify terrorism. [295] On 19 August 2020, Congressional Democrats asked the US secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, to provide information about China’s alleged role in building a uranium processing facility in Saudi Arabia. [413], The population of Saudi Arabia as of July 2013 is estimated to be 26.9 million, including between 5.5 million[3] and 10 million non-nationalized immigrants,[382][416] though the Saudi population has long proved difficult to accurately estimate due to Saudi leaders' historical tendency to inflate census results. Mamme Magazine Economists "estimate only 30–40 percent of working-age Saudis hold jobs or actively seek work," the official employment rate of around 12 percent notwithstanding: Global Water Intelligence: Becoming a world-class water utility, April 2011. Although now extremely wealthy, Saudi Arabia's economy was near stagnant. [396] The Saudi state discourages calling attention to or complaining about poverty. [222], Between the mid-1970s and 2002 Saudi Arabia expended over $70 billion in "overseas development aid". In January 2020, several other WWE superstars casted doubt over visiting Saudi, following the heightened tensions in Middle East due to assassination of Qassem Soleimani. La città di Riyadh è la capitale e la sede del governo dell’Arabia Saudita e si trova nell’entroterra del Paese. [149] The key ministries are generally reserved for the royal family,[137] as are the 13 regional governorships. A joint statement was issued by Britain, France and Germany also demanding a "credible investigation to establish the truth about what happened, and — if relevant — to identify those bearing responsibility for the disappearance of Jamal Khashoggi, and ensure that they are held to account. [citation needed]. [193], Because the judge is empowered to disregard previous judgments (either his own or of other judges) and may apply his personal interpretation of Sharia to any particular case, divergent judgements arise even in apparently identical cases,[194] making predictability of legal interpretation difficult. [208] Studies have shown that Saudi Arabia has one of the lowest crime rates in the world although there are differing views as to whether this is attributable to the legal system or other factors such as social structures. Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students. [563], A few Saudi women have risen to the top of the medical profession; for example, Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi heads a medical research center in California[564] and Dr. Salwa Al-Hazzaa is head of the ophthalmology department at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh and was the late King Fahad's personal ophthalmologist. During the 1970s, cinemas were numerous in the Kingdom although they were seen as contrary to Wahhabi norms. [542], On 31 October 2019, Saudi Arabia hosted the first ever women's wrestling match held by the World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). "[327], According to the new report from the Department of Global Affairs, Canada sold record-breaking amount of military hardware to Saudi Arabia in 2019, despite its poor human rights record. Most of the remainder of what became Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule. In 1916, with the encouragement and support of Britain (which was fighting the Ottomans in World War I), the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, led a pan-Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united Arab state. Milk production boasts a remarkably productive annual rate of 1,800 gallons per cow, one of the highest in the world. In interior sunt munti abrupti, care ating 2.500 m in Muntii Asir. 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Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al Saud contested control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family, the Al Rashid, who ruled the Emirate of Jabal Shammar. Ciononostante, l’Arabia Saudita è ricca di luoghi decisamente imperdibili, capaci di rendere una vacanza assolutamente indimenticabile. The King's intent was to respond to dissent while making as few actual changes in the status quo as possible. [330] An example of sentencing is that of UK pensioner and cancer victim Karl Andree, aged 74, who faced 360 lashes for home brewing alcohol. [595][596], According to critics, Saudi curriculum is not just dominated by Islam but suffers from Wahhabi dogma that propagates hatred towards non-Muslim and non-Wahhabis[597] and lacks technical and other education useful for productive employment. The ban includes penalties of a 12-month jail sentence and fines of up to 50,000 riyals ($13,000). The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous of which are Tagalog (700,000), Rohingya (400,000), Urdu (380,000), Egyptian Arabic (300,000), and Indonesian (250,000). There were several anti-government uprisings in the region such as the 1979 Qatif Uprising. [611] Infant mortality in 2018 was 6 per 1,000. Islamic dietary laws are enforced: pork is not allowed and other animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal. [395] The cities will be spread around Saudi Arabia to promote diversification for each region and their economy, and the cities are projected to contribute $150 billion to the GDP. [321] Saudi Arabia received 41 percent of UK arms exports in 2010–14. Nel centro storico si può passeggiare lungo piccole stradine su cui si affacciano antiche abitazioni, in netto contrasto con le prestigiose boutique, i grattacieli e i lussuosi centri commerciali che costellano Olayah Street, la principale arteria della città. [612], Coordinates: 24°N 45°E / 24°N 45°E / 24; 45, "KSA" redirects here. Critics accused the kingdom of "sportswashing", as it turned a blind eye to the unending violation of human rights in the country against women, minorities, rights advocates and critics. Mohammed Al-Jadaan said that the country will take “painful” measures and keep all options open to deal with the impact. However, in August 2019, the kingdom's strategy received criticism for appearing as a method of sportswashing soon after Saudi's US based 2018 lobbying campaign foreign registration documentations got published online. It started as a Sheikdom of Dedan, which developed into the Kingdom of Lihyan tribe. [80] Ibn Saud gained the support of the Ikhwan, a tribal army inspired by Wahhabism and led by Faisal Al-Dawish, and which had grown quickly after its foundation in 1912. [464] Over 500,000 undocumented migrant workers — mostly from Somalia, Ethiopia, and Yemen — have been detained and deported since 2013. The migrants were captured by Saudi guards when they tried to escape from the border area. Annual rainfall is extremely low. [173] Saudi Arabia has undergone a process of political and social reform, such as to increase public transparency and good governance. [202] Dates, once a staple of the Saudi diet, are now mainly grown for global humanitarian aid. 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È il paese islamico che applica la legge della Sharia nella sua maniera più rigida. The militants involved were in part angered by what they considered to be the corruption and un-Islamic nature of the Saudi government. [196] Extra-Sharia government tribunals usually handle disputes relating to specific royal decrees. Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family. In 1978, the country built its first grain silos. [57] The Arabian peninsula is regarded as a central figure in the understanding of hominin evolution and dispersals. [316] 2013 saw Saudi military spending climb to $67bn, overtaking that of the UK, France and Japan to place fourth globally. & Charloux, G. (2015), "From Liyan to the Nabataeans: Dating the End of the Iron Age in Northwestern Arabia" – p. 297. As of October 2018, Saudi Arabia is the largest economy in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. "[306] The Saudi government denies these claims or that it exports religious or cultural extremism. [556], The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years in Saudi Arabia,[557] with child marriage no longer common. [604], According to the educational plan for secondary (high school) education 1435–1438 Hijri, students enrolling in the "natural sciences" path are required to take five religion subjects which are: Tawhid, Fiqh, Tafseer, Hadith and Islamic Education and Quran. [279], Saudi Arabia halted new trade and investment dealings with Canada and suspended diplomatic ties in a dramatic escalation of a dispute over the kingdom's arrest of women's rights activist Samar Badawi on 6 August 2018. For other uses, see, ٱلْمَمْلَكَة ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة ٱلسَّعُوْدِيَّة, لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله، مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُوْلُ ٱلله, Political, economic, and social changes of the 2010s. [510], Five cultural sites in Saudi Arabia are designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih);[511] the Turaif district in the city of Diriyah;[512] Historic Jeddah, the Gate to Mecca;[513] Al-Ahsa Oasis;[514] and Rock Art in the Hail Region. [248][249][250][251][252][253] In February 2019, Crown Prince Mohammad defended China's Xinjiang re-education camps for Uyghur Muslims,[254][255] saying "China has the right to carry out anti-terrorism and de-extremisation work for its national security. [291] Andrew Smith, of Campaign Against Arms Trade (CAAT), said that Hunt and Boris Johnson "played an utterly central and complicit role in arming and supporting the Saudi-led destruction of Yemen. The annual King's Camel Race, begun in 1974, is one of the sport's most important contests and attracts animals and riders from throughout the region. Infatti, ogni fedele ha il dovere religioso di visitare la Mecca almeno una volta nella vita, secondo quanto scritto nel Corano. [376][377] It has the third highest total estimated value of natural resources, valued at US$34.4 trillion in 2016. Saudi judges tend to follow the principles of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence (or fiqh) found in pre-modern texts[192] and noted for its literalist interpretation of the Qur'an and hadith. [386] Increases in oil prices in the early 2000s helped boost per capita GDP to $17,000 in 2007 dollars (about $7,400 adjusted for inflation),[387] but have declined since oil price drop in mid-2014. Other denominations, such as the minority Shia Islam, are systematically suppressed. Provinciile sunt, mai departe, divizate în 118 guvernorate , inclusiv cele 13 capitale provinciale, care au un statut diferit de municipiu (amanah) conduse de un primar (amin). [487][488], Daily life is dominated by Islamic observance. [412], In September 2019, the Kingdom announced its plans to open visa applications for visitors, where people from about 50 countries would be able to get tourist visas to Saudi. Wadis, however, are very numerous. [80] In 1975, Faisal was assassinated by his nephew, Prince Faisal bin Musaid and was succeeded by his half-brother King Khalid. Those arrested are often not informed of the crime of which they are accused or given access to a lawyer and are subject to abusive treatment and torture if they do not confess. 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