Beginning in 2009 with Greece, the governments of several Euro-zone countries (Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Cyprus) declared themselves unable to repay or refinance their government debt or to bail out over-indebted banks without assistance from third parties. [36], Taking issue in defence of the Maastricht criteria, German finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble argued that "the old way to stimulate growth will not work." That phase of benign despotism is over. By the time of their own ratifications debates, France and Denmark also found themselves under pressure in foreign exchange markets, their currencies trading close to the bottom of their ERM bands. Save for Later. These criteria in turn dictated the mandate of the European System of Central Banks comprising the national central banks, but to include the prospective currency-issuing European Central Bank. Title II, Provisions Amending the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community, reformulates the EEC as the central "pillar" of the Union. Prime Minister John Major was able to face down his "Maastricht Rebels" only by tying ratification to the survival of the government in a vote of confidence.[11]. Coordination in foreign and security policy had taken place since the beginning of the 1970s under the name of European Political Cooperation (EPC), which had been first written into the treaties by the 1987 Single European Act. "Failing a Council decision", which would require unanimity, a Member State is free to take such action as it considers "necessary". The following timeline outlines the legal inception of the European Union (EU)—the principal framework for this unification. In a new EU country of residence Member-State nationals have the right to vote, and to stand, in both local and European elections. [15] The ERM was the centrepiece of the European Monetary System (EMS), set up on voluntary basis in 1978 to reduce the "barrier" that exchange-rate volatility presented for intra-Community commerce (and for the management of payments under the Common Agricultural Policy). Il trattato sull'Unione europea è stato firmato a Maastricht alla presenza del Presidente del Parlamento europeo, on. Operation Self-Deceit: New Documents Shine Light on Euro Birth Defects, "The IMF & the European Economic and Monetary Union - Factsheet", "Madrid European Council (12/95): Conclusions", "European Labour in a Single Market: '1992' and the Implications of Maastricht", "Wolfgang Schäuble: "Europe will only work if the rules are the same for smaller and bigger member states, "The Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties. In protest against the social-policy opt out, Labour opposed, while "anti-federalists" split the governing Conservatives. Annexed to the Treaty is a Protocol, and an Agreement, on Social Policy. Il Trattato di Maastricht, il Trattato C.E. Per aderire al Trattato di Maastricht nei diversi paesi è stato indetto un referendum 20. The treaty was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany, and it came into force on 1 January 1958. [40] Yet it is clear that nothing is to be construed as systematically constraining the foreign or defence policies of the individual Member States. This document is an excerpt from the EUR-Lex website. It is the result of a combined effort on the part of the General Secretariat of the Council and of the Commission. Works related to Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union at Wikisource, This article is about one of two founding treaties of the European Union. Officially known as the Treaty on European Union, the Maastricht Treaty marked the beginning of ‘a new stage in the process of creating an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe’ by giving the previous communities a political dimension. Formally the Treaty on European Union, it announced "a new stage in the process of European integration"[1] chiefly in provisions for a shared European citizenship, for the eventual introduction of a single currency, and (with less precision) for common foreign and security policies. [18] But when asked in 1990 by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to agree to German re-unification, French President François Mitterrand accepted only in the event Germany would abandon the Deutsche Mark and adopt a common currency. [7], In the first Danish referendum, on 2 June 1992, the treaty was rejected by a margin of 50.7% to 49.3%. In several of these areas, the Treaty seeks to enhance the "democratic functioning" of the institutions by conceding the directly-elected European Parliament rights not only of consultation but also of co-decision. "[33], Seeming to further preclude any possibility of the single-currency banking system being used to regulate European financial markets in support of expansionary – potentially inflationary – policies, the Treaty expressly prohibits the ECB or any Member State central extending "overdraft facilities or any other type of credit facility" to "Community institutions or bodies, central governments, regional, local or other public authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of Member States", or the purchase from them debt instruments. Tasso d'inflazione non superiore dell'1,5% rispetto a quello dei tre Paesi più virtuosi. Among its most prominent innovations, the treaty: provides the legal basis for 6 new EU common policies; safeguard the EU’s common values, fundamental interests and independence; strengthen the security of the EU and its member countries; preserve peace and international security in line with, develop and consolidate democracy and the. In base ai cosiddetti “parametri di Maastricht” (dal nome della città olandese in cui il 7 febbraio 1992 fu firmato il trattato istitutivo dell’Unione Europea), i Paesi che intendono adottare l’Euro come propria divisa, devono offrire delle garanzie su stabilità dei prezzi, situazione delle finanze pubbliche, tassi di interesse a lungo termine e tasso di cambio. Die Dokumente zeigen: Frankreich hat das schnelle Ende der Mark erzwungen. Maastricht Signature Netherlands.jpg 1,358 × 682; 61 KB Maastricht Signature Spain.jpg 1,004 × 491; 33 KB Maastricht Sinature Portugal.jpg 1,140 × 551; 45 KB Progetto Curricolare di Cittadinanza e Costituzione a.s. 2016-2017, classe 4A Liceo Scientifico Capoterra - I.I.S. This publication reproduces the text of the Treaty on European Union, as signed in Maastricht on 7 February 1992. Expression index: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200, More. La firma arriva al termine dei negoziati. In Ireland, the Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution, allowing the state to ratify the Treaty, was approved in a referendum held on 18 June 1992 with the support of 69.1% of votes cast. For the 1843 treaty between Belgium and the Netherlands, see, The Treaty of Maastricht, here shown at an exhibition in, Foreign and security policy, justice and home affairs, European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom), Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters. La cittadinanza europea assegna il diritto di Expansion plans may also be in jeopardy", "The Maastricht Debate: Major 'driven to confidence factor': Commons Exchanges: Treaty issue 'cannot fester any longer, 1990–1992: Britain and the politics of the European exchange rate mechanism, Conflicting Authorities: States, Currency Markets and the ERM Crisis of 1992–93, "A Practitioner's Guide to the Maastricht Treaty". Insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors. Other amendments create the office of European Ombudsman, expand the Structural Fund assistance to the poorer EU regions; and broaden Community competencies in education, culture, public health, consumer protection, trans-European networks, industry and the environment. In September 1992, a referendum in France narrowly supported the ratification of the treaty, with 50.8% in favour. Via Trattato di Maastricht 10 15067 Novi Ligure - AL - Italy. Word index: 1-300, 301-600, 601-900, More. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies This groups the traditional activities, working and decision-making procedures of the 3 original EU organisations: Common foreign and security policy (2nd pillar), Cooperation on justice and home affairs (3rd pillar). Title I, Common Provisions, establishes the European Union (EU) on the foundation of the three, already partially merged, European Communities: the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Without consulting with Karl Otto Pöhl, President of the Bundesbank, Kohl accepted the deal. The "austerity" they had subsequently to impose as a condition of assistance from Germany and other of their trade-surplus EU partners, raised calls for new arrangements to better manage payment imbalances between member states, and ease the burden of adjustment upon wage-, and benefit-, dependent households. Inflation at a rate no more than 1.5 percentage points higher than the average of the three best performing (lowest inflation) Member States; 2. a "budgetary position" that avoids "excessive" government deficits defined in ratios to gross domestic product (GDP) of greater than 3% for annual deficits and 60% for gross government debt; 3. the exchange rate of the national currency within "the normal fluctuation margins by the exchange-rate mechanism of the European Monetary System without There is a real "moral hazard" in allowing Member States to accumulate higher debts within the Eurozone – higher debts which, ultimately, have no relationship to higher growth. [46], The 1992 Treaty may have introduced a more consequential constitutional principle in its promotion "co-decision". In time, the tension between the transferred worker as "a mobile unit of production" contributing to the success of the single market, and the reality of the Community migrants as individuals, seeking to exercise "a personal right" to live and work in another state for their own, and their families', welfare, asserted itself. It creates the European Union. Political debate continued as to who should have access to public services and welfare systems funded by taxation.[14]. 4. nominal long-term interest rates no more than 2 percentage points higher than in the three Member States with the lowest inflation. In these and other areas which do not fall within Community's "exclusive competence", in accordance with "the principle of subsidiarity" action is to be taken only if, "by reason of the scale or effects", the objectives cannot be more "efficiently" achieved by the Member States themselves.[4]. Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg. In Britain the Maastricht rebellion drew on the experience of Black Wednesday. Titles III and IV amend the treaties establishing the ECSC and Euratom to complete their absorption into the structure of European Community. "[10], In the United Kingdom parliament ratification did not command a clear majority. As an implicit presumption subsidiarity may have been considered a check upon the supranational development of the EEC. Amendments incorporate (as detailed in attached protocols) a staged progression toward monetary union including the price-stability-first criteria for adoption of the single currency and for the operations of the prospective European Central Bank (ECB). Association Member: ILAB; Quantity available: 1. Following the EU accessions of Austria, Finland, and Sweden, it was in turn amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), and Nice (2001). Il Trattato di Maastricht introdusse inoltre il concetto di cittadinanza europea, di cui godono tutti i cittadini degli stati membri dell'Unione. [32] Whereas the Bundesbank, under article 12 of its constitution, is "bound to support the general economic policy of the [German] Federal Government", the obligation of the ECB to "support the general economic policies in the Community" is to be "without prejudice" to price stability, the Bank's "primary objective". December 12 1991: Maastricht Treaty hailed as great leap forward despite Major concessions By David Gow in Bonn, Paul Webster in Paris and John Palmer in … Sceptics note that the Treaty offers no legally actionable definition of subsidiarity. Trattato di Maastricht Trattato sull’Unione Europea firmato a Maastricht il 7 febbraio 1992 dagli allora 12 Paesi membri della Comunità Europea (Belgio, Danimarca, Francia, Germania, Gran Bretagna, Grecia, Irlanda, Italia, Lussemburgo, Paesi Bassi, Portogallo, Spagna), entrato in vigore il 1° novembre 1993. Guarda cosa ho condiviso: PMLI - 209 miliardi capestro all'Italia. "[45] Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg, conceded that consensus around the principle of subsidiarity had been possible only because "it conceals different interpretations". [41] This, in part, was a concession to United Kingdom which continued to insist on the sufficiency of the North Atlantic alliance (supported by the neutral, non-aligned, Member States, the Republic of Ireland and Austria, at the 1997 Amsterdam summit the UK prevented a merger of the WEU and the EU),[42][43]. In establishing the European Union the Maastricht Treaty amended the treaties that had established the European Communities in the 1950s. It was to do the same with respect to the obligation to enter the final, single-currency, stage of monetary union (the UK would not have to give up Pound sterling). It is further conditioned by the express understanding that "neither the ECB, nor a national central bank, nor any member of their decision-making bodies, shall seek or take instructions from Community institutions or bodies from any Government of a Member State or from any other body. Firmato a M. (Paesi Bassi), il 7 febbr. establishing rules and controls for the EU’s external borders; organising criminal and civil judicial cooperation; provide multilateral surveillance of this coordination; respect financial and budgetary discipline. (1) The United Kingdom withdraws from the European Union and becomes a third country (non-EU country) as of 1 February 2020. The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the 19 European Union countries which have adopted the euro. Against the background of the end of the Cold War and the re-unification of Germany, and in anticipation of accelerated globalisation, the treaty negotiated tensions between member states seeking deeper integration and those wishing to retain greater national control. The Treaty noted that it should be "ratified by the High Contracting Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional requirement". Although these were widely seen to presage a "federal Europe", the focus of constitutional debate shifted to the later 2007 Treaty of Lisbon. petition the European Parliament and address any complaints of EU administrative malpractice to the. Il Trattato di Maastricht è stato firmato il 7 febbraio 1992, avviando il percorso verso l’unione politica e monetaria dei membri. [16] From the beginning of 1990, high German interest rates, set by the Bundesbank to counteract inflationary impact of the expenditure on German reunification, caused significant stress across the whole of the ERM. Title V and VI extend existing intergovernmental consultations on foreign-policy, security and defence matters, and on "cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs." As envisaged by the Treaty,[30] the ECB replaced its shadow European Monetary Institute on 1 June 1998, and began exercising its full powers with the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999. Bacaredda-Atzeni di Cagliari severe tensions for at least the last two years"; and. [12] The Treaty built on the growing suggestion that there was a Community-wide basis for citizenship rights. L'Unione era fondata sulle Comunità europee e sostenuta da politiche e forme di cooperazione previste dal trattato sull'Unione europea. trattato di maastricht trattato sull'unione europea gazzetta ufficiale n. c 191 del 29 luglio 1992 sua maestÀ il re dei belgi, sua maestÀ la regina di danimarca, il presidente della repubblica federale di germania, il presidente della repubblica ellenica, sua maestÀ il re di spagna, il … This encompasses 3 separate strands (so-called pillars): cooperation between EU governments on justice and home affairs. [44] Subsidiarity can be read as a federalising principle. The Maastricht Treaty is of course the main example of a legally-binding agreement among privileged countries. On 18 May 1993, Maastricht Treaty was endorsed by a vote of 56.7%.[9]. For every endeavour it poses the question of whether national or Community policy is the most effective means, and elevates simple utility above any deference to national or local feeling. From Libreria Oreste Gozzini snc (Firenze, FI, Italy) AbeBooks Seller Since 01 October 2009 Seller Rating. In consequence of the Dutch Presidency of the Council of the European Communities during the previous six months of negotiation, the Treaty was signed in the Netherlands, in the city of Maastricht. ", "Still rooted in Maastricht: EU external relations as a 'third-generation hybrid, The Treaty on European Union, signed at Maastricht on 7 February 1992, The History of the European Union – The Treaty of Maastricht, Proposed 1962 treaty establishing a "European Union", Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Netherlands Antilles Association Convention, Treaty establishing the European Political Community, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Treaty Establishing the European Stability Mechanism, Post-Brexit United Kingdom relations with the European Union, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maastricht_Treaty&oldid=995151759, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 14:46. A.Strutture dell'Unione Con l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, il trattato di Maastricht ha segnato una nuova tappa nel processo volto a creare «un'unione sempre più stretta tra i popoli dell'Europa». Il Trattato di Maastricht e la Comunità Europea Il Trattato di Maastricht, firmato il 7 Febbraio 1992 ed entrato in vigore il 1 Novembre 1993, è l' atto fondativo dell'Unione Europea. trattato di maastricht 860. in vigore del trattato di lisbona 786. trattato di adesione 616. dal trattato di lisbona 563. progetto di trattato 428. trattato di non proliferazione 360. trattato di pace. Britain had signed up to the ERM in 1990 as a token of the government's commitment to control inflation (then running at three times the rate of Germany). Secondary legislation – which includes regulations, directives and decisions – are derived from the principles and objectives set out in the treaties. Provided that all Member States ratify, it rules that the Treaty should come into force on 1 January 1993. The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the 12 member states of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). Ratificato dagli allora dodici paesi delle Comunità Europee, specifica i criteri politici ed economici per poter aderire all'Unione. 1-112). sottoscritto il 7 febbraio 1992 dai 12 Stati membri della Comunità Europea nella città di Maastricht ed entrato in vigore il 1º novembre 1993, dopo la ratificazione dei Parlamenti degli Stati membri, il Trattato di Maastricht amplia i poteri della CE; fissa i tempi e i modi dell'unificazione economica e politica dell'Europa; decide la realizzazione di una banca centrale. The United Kingdom was not a party of the Agreement on Social Policy and secured an "opt out" from the protocol. – Hinter der Fassade ihrer deutsch-französischen Freundschaft haben Helmut Kohl und François Mitterrand erbittert um Einheit und Euro gerungen, wie jetzt neue Dokumente aus dem Kanzleramt zeigen. Unresolved in the Treaty is the question of their access to social rights. Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union, Presidency of the Council of the European Communities, Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Treaty establishing the European Defence Community, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, "EC Leaders at Sea Over Danish Rejection: Europe: Vote against Maastricht Treaty blocks the march to unity. 21. From the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1957, integrationists argued the free movement of workers was the logical corollary of the free movement of capital, goods and services and integral to the establishment of a common (and later single) European market. Set along side the European Community, the cooperation proposed in the Maastricht Treaty on foreign and security policy, and on justice and home affairs, were characterised in official commentary as the second and third "pillars" of the Union. increased legislative powers for the European Parliament; more majority voting when EU governments adopt legislation. MAIN DOCUMENT. [32] The commitment to monetary union and the convergence criteria denied member states the resort to currency deflation to ease balance-of-payments constraints on domestic spending, and left labour market "flexibility" as the only means of coping with asymmetric economic shocks. The Treaty rules that "every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union". Il trattato ha inoltre istituito la Banca centrale europea (BCE) e il Sistema europeo di banche centrali, precisandone le finalità. In both cases, Member States are to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]",[5] but otherwise cooperate independently of Community institutions. Since the end of World War II, sovereign European countries have entered into treaties and thereby co-operated and harmonised policies (or pooled sovereignty) in an increasing number of areas, in the so-called European integration project or the construction of Europe (French: la construction européenne). [6] In the cases of Denmark, France and Ireland this required referenda. Having "resolved to continue the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe", the Treaty proposes "further steps to be taken in order to advance European integration"[2] under seven titles. Ha segnato il momento culminante di vari decenni di dibattito sul rafforzamento della cooperazione economica in Europa. In particolare il debito pubblico di un paese non può superare il 60% del suo P.I.L. Il Trattato di Maastricht è naturalmente l'esempio più illustre di accordo giuridicamente vincolante fra paesi ricchi. On 16 September 1992 the British government had been forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), after a failed and costly attempt to keep the pound above its mandated exchange rate limit. This has been described as a "reversed Keynesianism": macro-economic policy not to secure a full-employment level of demand, but, through the restrictive control of monetary growth and public expenditure, to maintain price and financial market stability; micro economic policy, not to engineer income and price controls in support of fiscal expansion, but to encourage job creation by reducing barriers to lower labour costs.

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