[77], By November 1971, an Indian-Pakistani war seemed inevitable. Anthony Mascarenhas in Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood estimates that during the entire nine-month liberation struggle more than 1 million Bengalis may have died at the hands of the Pakistan Army. La Guerra indo-pakistaní de 1971 foi un conflictu militar importante ente India y Paquistán.La guerra tuvo cercanamente acomuñada cola Guerra de Lliberación de Bangladex (delles vegaes tamién denomada Guerra Civil Pakistaní). But India was alert, Pakistani pilots were inept, and Yahya's strategy of scattering his thin air force over a dozen air fields was a bust! [215] To this day, the issue of committed atrocities and pogroms is an influential factor in the Bangladesh–Pakistan relations. La guerriglia intensificò le sue azioni, di pari passo alla repressione da parte dell'esercito regolare pakistano e dei paramilitari Razakar sulla popolazione civile. 93,000 captured 2 destroyers[27] 1 Minesweeper[27] 1 Submarine[28] 3 Patrol vessels 7 gunboats. Il 26 marzo 1971 è considerato il giorno dell'indipendenza del Bangladesh. [111] Around 1900 personnel were lost, while 1413 servicemen were captured by Indian forces in Dacca. [60], In early March 1971, approximately 300 Biharis were slaughtered in riots by Bengali mobs in Chittagong alone. Pakistan and Bangladesh are both South Asian Muslim-majority countries. The Bangladesh Liberation War , also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. At least, the White House was actively against the idea of a dismembered Pakistan. Esto es sólo por nombrar algunos de los pocos acontecimientos del torbellino que se está produciendo en Pakistán. Since China is an ally of Pakistan, the People’s Republic of China reacted with productively towards situation in East Pakistan and the prospect of India invading West Pakistan. [14] Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Ltd. National Engineering and Scientific Commission, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1971&oldid=994951751, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2016, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Territory captured in Kashmir was retained by both sides and a new, Okha harbour damaged/fuel tanks destroyed, Damage to several western Indian airfields, Pakistani main port Karachi facilities damaged/fuel tanks destroyed, After the war, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto authorised the highly secretive and clandestine, Hayes, Jarrod. It is a well-known fact, or I can assume a lot of people are aware, that in 1971, the US government was not in favor of a liberated Bangladesh. [118], As the Indian Army tightened its grip in the East Pakistan, the Indian Air Force continued with its attacks against Pakistan as the campaign developed into a series of daylight anti-airfield, anti-radar, and close-support attacks by fighter jets, with night attacks against airfields and strategic targets by Canberras and An-12s, while Pakistan responded with similar night attacks with its B-57s and C-130s. [79]:164 According to Jussi Hanhimäki, Finnish historian of terrorism, the Bengali terrorism in the East is a somewhat "forgotten episode of annals of terrorism. However, 70% of Bangladeshis held a positive view of India: while 50% of Bangladeshis held a positive view of Pakistan. [32] In announcing the Pakistani surrender, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared in the Indian Parliament: Dacca is now the free capital of a free country. And it is just about 45 years before. According to Pakistani historians, the trauma was extremely severe, and the cost of the war for Pakistan in monetary terms and in human resources was very high. It forced the reporter's family into hiding and changed history. Nel 1972 l'accordo di Shimla sancì la fine delle ostilità tra India e Pakistan. [136]:281 During the Cold War, Pakistan was a close formal ally of the United States and also had close relations with the People's Republic of China, with whom Nixon had been negotiating a rapprochement and where he intended to visit in February 1972. They typically accuse Pakistani reporters (such as Anthony Mascarenhas) who reported on the genocide of being "enemy agents". [185] Unlike his contemporary Yaqub who was a pacifist and knew well of the limits of force, Tikka was a "soldier known for his eager use of force" to settle his differences. L'obiettivo strategico fu di impedire ai pakistani la penetrazione all'interno della provincia, per poi attaccare i distaccamenti isolati. Spanish translation of Pakistan - a state at war with itself by Lal Khan (May 15, 2007) ... la crisis en la judicatura y ahora el comienzo de la guerra civil en Karachi y en otras partes. Oltre 93.000 soldati pakistani si arresero alle forze indiane, il più grande numero di prigionieri dalla seconda guerra mondiale. [179]:xxx[180] Demoralized and finding itself unable to control the situation, the Yahya administration fell when President Yahya Khan turned over his presidency to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who was sworn in on 20 December 1971 as President with the control of the military.[181]. [9] I pakistani occidentali erano convinti che i bengalesi non avessero "attitudine militare" al contrario dei Pashtun e degli abitanti nel Punjab; la teoria delle razze marziali fu presto messa da parte come ridicola ed umiliante, tuttavia[9] malgrado le alte spese militari dello Stato unitario il Pakistan orientale non ricevette alcun beneficio in termini di contratti, acquisti e commesse militari. La guerra del Noroeste Pakistán es uno de los conflictos denominados de alta intensidad por la ONU. [106] Pakistan countered the threat by sending the submarine PNS Ghazi, which sank off Visakhapatnam's coast, due to an internal explosion, though whether this was triggered by Indian depth charges, diving to avoid them or some other reason has never been established. Esercito e milizie paramilitari si macchiarono sistematicamente di atrocità volte al genocidio della popolazione bengalese. Successivamente, in memoria delle vittime del 1952, l'UNESCO ha dichiarato il 21 febbraio come la Giornata internazionale delle lingue locali. [48][49][50], The Indo-Pakistani conflict was sparked by the Bangladesh Liberation War, a conflict between the traditionally dominant West Pakistanis and the majority East Pakistanis. "[197]:133–135 This crash programme reached parity[clarification needed] in 1977 when the first weapon design was successfully achieved. Il presidente Richard Nixon vietò ogni ingerenza nella questione affermando che si trattasse di affari interni al Pakistan. [52]:13–14[53], To overcome the Bengali domination and prevent formation of the central government in Islamabad, the controversial One Unit programme established the two wings of East and West Pakistan. Both Pakistan and Bangladesh should look forward for good relationship as both have no other option. The Soviets also had a nuclear submarine to help ward off the threat posed by the USS Enterprise task force in the Indian Ocean. Sectors of Bangladesh Liberation War.svg 1,531 × 2,138; 184 KB The IAF strikes the enemy's rail communication in West Pakistan, Dec 71.jpg 443 × 280; 81 KB জয় বাংলা.svg 400 × 400; 14 KB [15] The loss of armoured vehicles was similarly imbalanced and this finally represented a major defeat for Pakistan. Blog. They both have Muslim majorities and both have high population densities. At the most critical moment in our history we failed to check the limitless ambitions of individuals with dubious antecedents and to thwart their selfish and irresponsible behaviour. [56]:686–687 The Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman stressed his political position by presenting his Six Points and endorsing the Bengalis' right to govern. [172], For Pakistan, the war was a complete and humiliating defeat,[32] a psychological setback that came from a defeat at the hands of rival India. A day by day account of the war as seen in a virtual newspaper. The complete Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report, 1971 Massacre in Bangladesh and the Fallacy in the Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report, Dr. M.A. La guerra indo-pakistana del 1971 o terza guerra indo-pakistana venne combattuta tra il 3 e il 17 dicembre 1971, e vide fronteggiarsi da un lato le forze del Pakistan e dall'altro quelle dell' India, intervenute a sostegno dei guerriglieri indipendentisti bengalesi del Mukti Bahini. L'attività del Mukti Bahini crebbe rapidamente. Tre Corpi indiani invasero il Pakistan orientale, sostenuti dalle brigate del Mukti Bahini e da truppe irregolari. [206] Other estimates place the death toll lower, at 300,000. L'Agenzia di intelligence indiana (RAW) giocò un ruolo cruciale nel fornire il supporto logistico al Mukti Bahini durante le fasi iniziali della guerra. [214], According to John H. Gill, there was widespread polarisation between pro-Pakistan Bengalis and pro-liberation Bengalis during the war, and those internal battles are still playing out in the domestic politics of modern-day Bangladesh. Indira Gandhi, presidenta de la India acogió a los refugiados pero se negó a reconocer la existencia de un Bangladesh independiente. Inoltre quasi 200 soldati ricercati per crimini di guerra dai bengalesi vennero graziati dall'India. Il Pakistan orientale giudicava negativamente l'ossessione di quello Occidentale per il Kashmir, e il generale Yahya Khan, succeduto al generale Ayyub Khan alla guida del paese nel 1969, dovette affrontare gravi difficoltà sul piano interno e internazionale. [161][162] As Pakistani aircraft could not fly over Indian territory, they would have to take a longer route around India and so they stopped at Bandaranaike Airport in Sri Lanka where they were refuelled before flying to East Pakistan. Bangladesh - Bangladesh - The Pakistani period, 1947–71: Although the boundaries of East Bengal were based ostensibly on religion, they did not entirely reflect it. [36][37][38] The remaining 10,324 to 12,500 prisoners were civilians, either family members of the military personnel or collaborators (razakars). Quest’ultima, poi entrò in guerra … [23][117], In the East, No. Este capítulo sigue, sin embargo, grabado en la sociedad del país, donde se han iniciado varios proyectos para investigar qué ocurrió y dar a conocer esta parte de la historia de Bangladesh. [114][115] The IAF flew 4,000 sorties while the PAF offered little in retaliation, partly because of the paucity of non-Bengali technical personnel. So origen data de Marzo de 2004, y ha causado ya más de 44.000 muertos, 6.000 de ellos solo en el año 2011. It was our collective 'conduct' that had provided the enemy an opportunity to dismember us. [119]:107–108, The PAF deployed its F-6s mainly on defensive combat air patrol missions over their own bases, leaving the PAF unable to conduct effective offensive operations. La guerra di liberazione del Bangladesh fu un conflitto armato che vide schierati Pakistan dell'est ed India contro Pakistan dell'ovest. Gli indiani occuparono rapidamente il paese, evitando le roccaforti maggiormente difese. [123]:596 Major ground attacks were concentrated on the western border by the Pakistan Army, fighting together with the Pakistan Marines in the southern border, but the Indian Army was successful in penetrating into Pakistani soil. Nel luglio 1971 l'ex-Beatle George Harrison pubblicò in favore delle popolazioni colpite dalla guerra il singolo di beneficenza Bangla Desh, il cui ricavato sarà devoluto a un fondo dell'UNICEF. [145][146], As the war progressed, it became apparent to the United States that India was going to invade and disintegrate Pakistan in a matter of weeks, therefore President Nixon spoke with the USSR General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev on a hotline on 10 December, where Nixon reportedly urged Brezhnev to restrain India as he quoted: "in the strongest possible terms to restrain India with which … you [Brezhnev] have great influence and for whose actions you must share responsibility. Anque esisten desalcuerdos sobre les feches esactes de la guerra, les hostilidaes ente India y Paquistán empezaron oficialmente na tarde del 3 d'avientu de 1971. Niazi, the Commander of the Pakistan Eastern Command, at the Ramna Race Course in Dacca at 16:31Hrs IST on 16 December 1971. [151]:19 Before the war started, Chinese leaders and officials had long been philosophically advising the Pakistan government to make peaceful political settlements with the East Pakistani leaders, as China feared that India was secretly supporting, infiltrating, and arming the Bengali rebels against the East Pakistani government. [130] Upon hearing the ultimatum, the East-Pakistan government collapsed when the Lt-Gen. A.A.K. Il Pakistan rispose inviando ulteriori 5 battaglioni. [253][254], Military confrontation between India and Pakistan alongside the Bangladesh Liberation War, India's involvement in Bangladesh Liberation War, India's official engagement with Pakistan, Surrender of Pakistan Eastern Command in East Pakistan, Pakistan: War Enquiry Commission and War prisoners, Bangladesh: International Crimes Tribunal. [27] Pakistani naval sources reported that about 720 Pakistani sailors were killed or wounded, and Pakistan lost reserve fuel and many commercial ships, thus crippling the Pakistan Navy's further involvement in the conflict. Nel luglio 1971, la prima ministra indiana Indira Gandhi si riferì ufficialmente al Pakistan orientale con il nome di Bangladesh. [91]:174–175 On 23 November, President Yahya Khan declared a national state of emergency and told the country to prepare for war. The U.S. establishment perceived to the impression that they needed Pakistan to help stop Soviet influence in South Asia in an informal alliance with India. Pakistan had lost half of her navy, third of army and a quarter of air force besides millions of casualties. [129]:802 Faced with insurmountable losses, the Pakistani military capitulated in less than a fortnight and psychological panic spread in the Eastern Command's military leadership. [119]:107 According to author Martin Bowman, "Libyan F-5s were reportedly deployed to Sargodha AFB, perhaps as a potential training unit to prepare Pakistani pilots for an influx of more F-5s from Saudi Arabia. Che Allah ci aiuti nella nostra lotta per la libertà. Gli Stati Uniti ritardarono il riconoscimento per alcuni mesi, fino all'8 aprile 1972. [General] Tikka let loose everything at his disposal as if raiding an enemy, not dealing with his own misguided and misled people. Il governo del Bangladesh in esilio ed il comandante Osmani optarono per una diversa strategia. [219]:127 In 1976, the Supplementary Report was submitted, which was the comprehensive report compiled together with the First Report; this report was also marked as classified. [40] When the ceasefire that came from the surrender of East Pakistan was finally announced, the people could not come to terms with the magnitude of defeat; spontaneous demonstrations and massive protests erupted on the streets of major metropolitan cities in Pakistan. of Eastern Command) and his deputy, V-Adm. M.S. of Pakistani Eastern Comnd., signing the documented instrument in Dacca in the presence of Lt. Gen. Jagjit Singh Aurora (GOC-in-C of Indian Eastern Comnd.Surojit Sen of All India Radio is seen holding a microphone on the right. [27] The naval attack involving the Soviet-built Osa missile boats sank the Pakistan Navy's destroyer PNS Khaibar and minesweeper PNS Muhafiz while PNS Shah Jahan was also badly damaged. [32], Colonel John Gill of National Defense University, US, remarks that, while India achieved a military victory, it was not able to reap the political fruits it might have hoped for in Bangladesh. [citation needed] F-86s from Saudi Arabia helped camouflage the extent of PAF losses, and some Libyan F-5s were reportedly deployed to Sargodha AFB, perhaps as a potential training unit to prepare Pakistani pilots for an influx of more F-5s from Saudi Arabia. Bewoor(GOC-in-C, Southern Command) Lt.Gen K. P. Candeth(GOC-in-C, Western Command) Lt.Gen Premindra Bhagat(GOC-in-C, Central Command) Lt.Gen Sagat Singh(GOC-in-C, IV Corps) Lt.Gen T. N. Raina(GOC-in-C, II Corps) Lt.Gen Sartaj Singh(GOC-in-C, XV Corps) Lt.Gen Karan Singh(GOC-in-C, I Corps) MajGen Farj R. Jacob(COS, Eastern Command) MajGen Om Malhotra(COS, IV Corps) MajGen Inderjit Singh Gill(Dir, Military Operations) Adm S. M. Nanda(Chief of Naval Staff) VAdm S. N. Kohli(Cdr. La sconfitta in meno di due settimane e la perdita della metà della nazione causarono un fortissimo shock all'ovest, sia nell'ambiente militare che tra i civili. Sen. Kennedy wrote, "Field reports to the U.S. Government, countless eye-witness journalistic accounts, reports of International agencies such as World Bank and additional information available to the subcommittee document the reign of terror which grips East Bengal (East Pakistan). Arora(GOC-in-C, Eastern Command) Lt.Gen G.G. On 6 and 13 December, the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of cruisers and destroyers from Vladivostok;[134] they trailed US Task Force 74 into the Indian Ocean from 18 December 1971 until 7 January 1972. Le historia de Pakistan posterior a su independentia ha essite characterisate per periodos de governamento militar, instabilitate politic et per le conflicto con su vicin India, altere pais con armas nuclear, pro le controlo de Kashmir . In his book The 1971 Indo-Pak War: A Soldier's Narrative, Pakistan Army's Major General Hakeem Arshad Qureshi, a veteran of this conflict, noted: We must accept the fact that, as a people, we had also contributed to the bifurcation of our own country. "Securitization, social identity, and democratic security: Nixon, India, and the ties that bind. Jon Lake, "Air Power Analysis: Indian Airpower". Ambassador to the United Nations, George H.W. La risposta pakistana consistette nel paracadutare due divisioni di fanteria ed in una contestuale riorganizzazione delle proprie forze oltre che nell'organizzazione delle forze paramilitari dei Razakar, degli Al-Badrs e degli Al-Shams (che erano in gran parte membri della Lega Musulmana, il partito di governo, e di altri gruppi islamici), oltre che di altri bengalesi che si opponevano all'indipendenza, come i musulmani Bihar stabilitisi nel Bengala nel corso della divisione dell'India britannica. [83], By the end of April 1971, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had asked the Indian Army chief General Sam Manekshaw if he was ready to go to war with Pakistan. The West Pakistani press waged a vigorous but ultimately futile campaign to counteract newspaper and radio accounts of wholesale atrocities. His orders to his troops were: "I want the land, not the people..."." [74] Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on 27 March 1971 expressed full support of her government for the independence struggle of the people of East Pakistan, and concluded that instead of taking in millions of refugees, it was economical to go to war against Pakistan. [51]:xxx In 1969, President Yahya Khan announced the first general elections and disestablished the status of West Pakistan as a single province in 1970, in order to restore it to its original heterogeneous status comprising four provinces, as defined at the time of establishment of Pakistan in 1947. Alla sua direzione, ho preso il comando come capo provvisorio della Repubblica. Bangladesh (in le lingua bengali বাংলােদশ litteralmente le pais de Bengala) es un pais de Asia del Sud, situate al nord del golfo de Bengala.Illo es quasi un enclave de India, con un parve frontiera commun con Myanmar.Le pais deveniva independente in 1971, le data del partition de Pakistan.Illo ha constituite antea le "Pakistan Oriental". I campi di addestramento erano situati nei pressi della zona di confine con l'India, che diede tutto il supporto logistico e strategico (Operazione Jackpot). [119]:112 Libyan leader Gaddafi also personally directed a strongly worded letter to Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi accusing her of aggression against Pakistan, which endeared him to all Pakistanis. [81][82] By the end of September 1971, a propaganda campaign, possibly orchestrated by elements within the Government of Pakistan, resulted in stickers endorsing "Crush India" becoming a standard feature on the rear windows of vehicles in Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Lahore; this soon spread to the rest of West Pakistan.

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